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Greek I
Azusa Pacific University
Dr. Keith Reeves
September 8, 2004
"Introduction to Biblical Greek & the Alphabet"

I.   Koine Greek
A.   Alexander the Great conquered all of the surrounding, thus Greek had many dialects
B.   After the dialects disappeared they began to form a "common" Greek (Around 300 BC)
C.   Koine = common (thus Koine Greek is common Greek)
II.   Alphabet
A.   Alpha
1.   Father
2.   α
B.   Beta
1.   B
2.   β
C.   Gamma
1.   G
2.   γ
D.   Delta
1.   D
2.   δ
E.   Epsilon
1.   Met
2.   ε
F.   Zeta
1.   Suds
2.   ζ
G.   Eta
1.   Obey
2.   η
H.   Theta
1.   Th
2.   θ
I.   Iota
1.   Pit
2.   ι
J.   Kappa
1.   K
2.   κ
K.   Lamda
1.   L
2.   λ
L.   Mu
1.   M
2.   μ
M.   Nu
1.   N
2.   ν
N.   Xi
1.   Fox
2.   ξ
O.   Omicron
1.   Νοτ
2.   ο
P.   Pi
1.   P
2.    "
Q.   Rho
1.   Rod
2.   ρ
R.   Sigma
1.   S
2.   σ
S.   Tau
1.   Τ
2.   τ
T.   Upsilon
1.   gross
2.   υ
U.   Phi
1.   Ph
2.   φ
V.   Chi
1.   Ch
2.   χ
W.   Psi
1.   ps
2.   ψ
X.   Omega
1.   Vote
2.   ω
III.   Basic Grammer
A.   Tense
1.   Time
a.   Past
b.   Present -  "ιστευετε
c.   Future –  "ιστευσετψ - σ is often an indication of future tense
2.   Nature
a.   Continuous
b.   Undefined
B.   Voice
1.   Active – Andrew threw the men (Subject doing the action)
2.   Middle – Get dressed (both active and passive)
3.   Passive – The pen was thrown by Andrew
C.   Mood
1.   Indicative – it indicates something or states a fact (I am eating/praying/walking)
2.   Imperative (Start eating/praying/walking)
3.   Subjunctive (Let us &eat/pray/walk)
D.   Person
1.   First Person - &ω
2.   Second Person (you) – εις
3.   Third Person (he, she, they) - ει
E.   Number
1.   Singular
2.   Plural
a.   First Person - &ομεν
b.   Second Person - &ετε
c.   Third Person - &ουσι(ν)
F.   Vowels
1.   7 vowels – α ε η ι ο υ ω
2.   Diphthongs
a.   αι – ai (aisle)
b.   ει – ei (neighbor)
c.   οι – oi (oil)
d.   υι – uee (queen)
e.   αυ – ow (cow)
f.   ου – oo (food)
g.   ευ – met + rude
h.   ηυ – obey + rude
G.   Accent
1.    " - acute
2.   ~ - cribumflex
3.   `- grav
H.   Punctuation
1.   , = , (minor pause)
2.   . = . (full stop)
3.    " = ; (long pause) – note the . is actually raised to be in the middle
4.   ; = ? (question)
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