General Epistles
Azusa Pacific University
Mr. Matt Hauge
February 3, 2004
"Methods of Hebrews"

I.   The Shadow Statements
A.   Hebrews 8:1-7 - the true temple
1.   v. 5 - In a sanctuary that is a sketch and shadow of the heavenly one
2.   There is a heavenly temple that is far more majestic than the earthly temple
3.   The earthly temple is only a sketch of the shadow of the true temple
B.   Hebrews 9:23-28 - the true sacrifice
1.   v. 23 - for the sketches of the heavenly things to be purified with these rites
2.   What has been done for generations was only a sketch of the real sacrifice to come
3.   His sacrifice was done in the true temple, as apposed to the earthly sacrifices which were done in the sketch of the shadow of the true temple
C.   Heb 10:1-10 - the true law
1.   v.1 - Since the law has only a shadow of the good things to come
2.   The law was only a shadow of what is to come, despite the fact that the law was given by God
II.   The use of shadow and sketch refers to Plato
A.   Everyone would have been familiar with Plato
B.   This is not controversial at all; Hebrews has long been understood to be reflecting upon the Platonic school with inserting Christ
C.   Platonic School
1.   Socrates (470-399 BC)
a.   Main character of Plato's writings - Socrates did not write anything
b.   Accused of atheism & executed by the state
2.   Plato (427-347 BC)
a.   Student of Socrates
b.   Founded the Academy in Athens - prototype of the contemporary universities
c.   Prolific author of various dialogues (conversations)
d.   The Dialectic
i.   Republic: What is the ideal state?
ii.   Apology: What is the good life?
iii.   Phaedo: What is the soul?
iv.   Symposium: What is love?
e.   Platonic Theory of Reality
i.   Two Worlds
a.   World of Forms
1.   Beyond space and time
2.   Perfect and unchanging
b.   Physical World
1.   Defined by space and time
2.   Imperfect and changing (entropy)
ii.   "The Allegory of the Cave" (Republic VII)
a.   It is basically a parable/story
b.   Situation
1.   There was a cave
2.   In the cave there was a guys, shackled in the cave
3.   Outside the cave there were the sun
4.   The men can only look into the cave, not outwards
5.   All these men have ever seen in life is the shadow of the true things (such as trees, objects and men outside of the cave)
c.   The Story
1.   One day a man breaks free and escapes and sees the "real world"
2.   He returns to tell the other guys to leave the shackles and see the real world and they kill him
3.   They can't handle the truth
d.   Christological element
1.   Jesus came to show the real world and they killed him
2.   This was 400 years before Jesus/
3.   Hebrews uses this mindset to convince of the supremacy of Christ
III.   The method of Hebrews is the idea of a shadow and reality
A.   Shadow = Judaism
B.   Reality = Christianity
C.   According to Hebrews, the shadow was a precursor of what's to come that shows an imperfect version of the perfection that is to (and has) come
IV.   The huge theological problem for us now is if Judaism wasn't going to work and was only a shadow of what's to come, why create it in the first place
Old Testament
New Testament
(Militant) Killer
Killed Himself
Jews & Gentiles
(Jewish) Provider & Protector