Christian Communities in the Middle East
Jerusalem University College
Dr. Petra Heldt
September 23, 2003
"Arab and the Easter Church Cycle"

I.   What is an Arab? (personal note: I don't necessarily agree with what is below)
A.   Up until the 20th century: anyone from a Bedouin tribe in Saudi Arabia
B.   Since 20th century - not necessarily a good definition
1.   Speaks: Arabic
2.   Religion: Islam
3.   Nationalistically sympathetic to the governing body that is run by Islam
C.   Distinctions of Arabs
1.   Der-al Islam
a.   Umma = state
b.   Living in an area that belongs to the "realm of Islam"
2.   Der-al Harp
a.   Areas of the sword
b.   Meaning they want to conquer the non-Islamic countries
i.   Can be done violently
ii.   Can also be done by living in other countries and getting so numerous as to out number the original inhabitants
II.   Calendar
A.   Year are different
1.   West/Christian (2003)
2.   Judaism (5764)
3.   Muslim (1300 circa.)
B.   Easter Cycle
1.   Lent - 40 days before Easter
2.   Palm Sunday - Sunday before Easter
3.   Maudy Thursday - Foot washing
4.   Good Friday - Christ's death
5.   "The Saturday" - When Jesus is in hell & there is no light on earth
6.   Easter
7.   Days of Ascension - 40 days after Easter
8.   Pentecost - Holy Spirit comes
C.   Christmas Cycle
1.   Advent - 4 weeks of preperation
2.   Christmas Day
3.   January 6th - remembering Jesus' baptism
III.   Liturgy
A.   Eucharist
1.   Basileas - 4 hours long
2.   Chrystostrom - 2 hours long
3.   Catholic - 1 hour long
4.   "The shortest one" - 1/2 hour long
B.   4 elements
1.   Iconostasis/Preparation
2.   Catechu
3.   Faithful/Anaphora
4.   Anaphora/Anti-Doron