Women in Biblical Tradition
Azusa Pacific University
Dr. Kathryn Smith
March 31, 2003
"Women and Paul the Apostle"

I.   Roles Played by Women in Paul and Acts
A.   Apostle (Rom 16:7)
B.   Prophet (Acts 2:17-18; 21:9)
C.   Minister (Rom 16:1)
D.   Proclaimer of the Gospel (tons of references)
E.   Teacher (Acts 18:26)
F.   Discipler (Acts 18:26)
G.   Home Congregation Leader (Acts 16:19; 40; Phil 4:3, where Paul's addressee is, "my loyal szyzygy, "partner;" 1Corinthians 1:11; Col 4:15)
H.   Businesswoman (Acts 16:14)
I.   Influential ruler over large household (including adult male servants) (Acts 16:15)
J.   Legal patron to Paul (Rom 16:2)
K.   Co-Worker to Paul (Romans 16:3)
II.   Problematic Texts
A.   Method - must take all texts into account collectively
B.   1Cor 14:34 "Let the women keep silent (or "stop talking") in the churches, for they are not permitted to speak, but let them subject themselves, just as the law also says."
1.   Context - learning environment (1Cor 14:35)
2.   lalein - "to speak"
a.   Chatter, babble
b.   Informal talk, not formal speech
c.   Andy's Interpretation: I don't by it - look at all these references
Matthew 12:22
talk lale 9w lalei"n G3281
Matthew 12:34
say lale 9w lalei"n G3281
Mark 1:34
speak lale 9w lalei"n G3281
Mark 7:37
speak." lale 9w lalei"n. G3281
Mark 12:1
speak lale 9w lalei"n, G3281
Luke 4:41
speak, lale 9w lalei"n, G3281
Luke 7:15
talk, lale 9w lalei"n, G3281
John 8:26
say lale 9w lalei"n G3281
Acts 2:4
speak lale 9w lalei"n G3281
Acts 4:17
speak lale 9w lalei"n G3281
Acts 4:20
speaking lale 9w lalei"n. G3281
Acts 4:29
speak lale 9w lalei"n G3281
Acts 5:40
speak lale 9w lalei"n G3281
Acts 11:15
speak, lale 9w lalei"n G3281
Romans 15:18
speak lale 9w lalei"n G3281
1 Corinthians 14:5
speak lale 9w lalei"n G3281
1 Corinthians 14:34
speak, lale 9w lalei"n: G3281
1 Corinthians 14:35
speak lale 9w lalei"n G3281
1 Corinthians 14:39
speaking lale 9w lalei"n G3281
Philippians 1:14
speak lale 9w lalei"n. G3281
1 Thessalonians 1:8
say lale 9w lalei"n G3281
3.   Contradicted by 1Cor 11:5
4.   Weigh against the evidence
C.   1Timothy 2:12
1.   Deals with authority
2.   "Exercise authority" (authenteinI) is a hapax legomenon in the New Testament - It is the only time in the Bible that this word is used
3.   Means "domineer over"
4.   Positive term would have been exousia
a.   This is the proper word for authority
b.   The word choice indicates that the authority Paul is talking about in 1Tim 2:12 is different from other forms of authority
5.   No prohibition against women exercising proper authority - only domination
III.   If Women Can Lead, What Are the Models
A.   Not the highly stratified models of the priestly system and of Byzantine Christianity
B.   Instead, the corporate model of charismata (1Cor 12)
C.   Any subordination implied in this model is based upon differences of charismata, not of gender (see 1Cor 12:28-31; 14:5; Eph 3:5)
D.   Gift-based, not gender based hierarchy