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Women in Biblical Tradition
Azusa Pacific University
Dr. Kathryn Smith
March 31, 2003
"Women Who Traveled with Jesus"

I.   Women Preachers - Luke 8:1-3
Smith's "better" Translation
NRSV
NIV
Luke 8:1 And it happened that subsequently he traveled to the cities and villages, preaching and proclaiming the gospel of the kingdom of God, 2 as well as the twelve who were with him and the women, some of whom had been healed of evil spirits and illnesses, Mary Magdalene, from whom seven demons had gone out 3 and Joanna, the wife of Chuza, steward of Herod, and Susanna, and many others who ministered to them from their resources.
Luke 8:1 Soon afterwards he went on through cities and villages, proclaiming and bringing the good news of the kingdom of God. The twelve were with him, 2 as well as some women who had been cured of evil spirits and infirmities: Mary, called Magdalene, from whom seven demons had gone out, 3 and Joanna, the wife of Herod's steward Chuza, and Susanna, and many others, who provided for them out of their resources.
Luke 8:1 After this, Jesus traveled about from one town and village to another, proclaiming the good news of the kingdom of God. The Twelve were with him, 2 and also some women who had been cured of evil spirits and diseases: Mary (called Magdalene) from whom seven demons had come out; 3 Joanna the wife of Cuza, the manager of Herod's household; Susanna; and many others. These women were helping to support them out of their own means.
A.   Issues
1.   Prominent women probably preached alongside Jesus and the twelve
a.   According to Kay - we cannot prove from this passage that women were "preachers," but you can't disprove it either
b.   According to Andy - it is true this passage cannot "disprove" the fact women weren't "preachers," but I still think that the rest of Jesus' actions do not give a good, solid biblical example of women teaching
2.   Problem of translation with a particular set of expectations
B.   Junia - Romans 16:7 - could be a reference to Joanna of Luke 8
1.   Is referred to as "prominent amongst apostles"
2.   13th century - people thought it was inappropriate for a women to be an apostle so they changed her name to Junias - They thought the text was strong enough to indicate the person being talked about was an apostle that they changed the name
3.   There is no record of a person with that name anywhere
II.   Jesus and His Emancipatory Movement for Change
A.   Remember - Jesus was not alone in creating this movement
1.   Important method
2.   Search here is not the "historical Jesus" but the "historical People"
a.   Jesus didn't do this ministry totally alone
b.   The problem is, since Jesus was God, most the time in stories about Jesus the others get minimized (somewhat rightfully so, but we still need to see what others did around Him)
B.   Did Patriarchy Exist in the Early Jesus Movement? - Yes
1.   But Jesus fought against it
2.   Mark 10:42-45
III.   Importance of the Fellow Women Travelers
A.   Let's define "apostle"
1.   Literally, the one who is sent out
2.   Acts 1 Criteria
a.   See the risen Lord
b.   Be with Jesus since the beginning
B.   The three named women - Mary Magdalene, Joanna, wife of Chuza, Suzanna
1.   May have preached
a.   Luke 8:1 (Andy's interpratation: it is a little week)
b.   Later church tradition
2.   Patrons - thus high status
a.   Joanna especially would have been of very high status
C.   Why no women among the 12?
1.   We don't even know who the 12 were
The Names of the Twelve
Mark 3
1. Simon
2. James son of Zebedee
3. John son of Zebedee
4. Andrew
5. Philip
6. Bartholomew
7. Matthew
8. Thomas
9. James son of Alphaues
10. Thaddalaus
11. Simon the Zealot
12. Judas Iscariot
Luke 6:12-16
1. Simon
2. James son of Zebedee
3. John son of Zebedee
4. Andrew
5. Philip
6. Bartholomew
7. Matthew
8. Thomas
9. James son of Alphaeus
10. Judas son of James
11. Smimon the Zealot
12. Judas Iscariot
Acts 1:13
1. Simon
2. James son of Zebedee
3. John son of Zebedee
4. Andrew
5. Philip
6. Bartholow
7. Matthew
8. Thomas
9. James son of Alphaeus
10. Judas son of James
11. Simon the Zealot
12. Judas Iscariot
John 1:37-40;
14:22, 21:2
1. Simon
2. James son of Zebedee
3. John son of Jebedee
4. Andrew
5. Philip
6. Nathanael
7. (no mention)
8. Thomas
9. (no mention)
10. Judas (not Iscariot)
11. (no mention)
12. Judas Iscariot
2.   
3.   Idealized figures; regents of Israel
IV.   Mary Magdalene
A.   Upsetting role for the tradition
1.   Branded a prostitute
2.   Yet portrayed as ideal disciple (John 20:11-18)
3.   All 4 gospels agree she is first witness of resurrection
4.   yet Paul makes no mention of her in 1Cor 15 list of witnesses
B.   Mary Magdalene in Later Tradition
1.   Dialogue of the Savior (Gnostic) - Mary is more important than all the other apostles
2.   Gospel of Phillip - states that the Lord loved her more than all the others
3.   Epistula Apostolorum (2nd c.), Gospel of Peter (2nd C.), Coptic Gospel of Thomas (1st c.), Secrete Gospel of Mark (2nd c.), Gospel of Mary, Pistis Sophia (early 3rd c.), referred to as superior to the other disciples, more blessed, more excellent than the men; Sophia of Jesus Christ, appears as a questioner, Acts of Philip (4th c.)
V.   Joanna, Wife of Chuza
A.   May be Junia in Roman 16:7
B.   In Luke 24:10, first at the tomb with Mary (not mentioned in any other ones)
C.   Major status conflict - hence her honor among the Jesus group
1.   Very high status given the wife of Herod
2.   Very "low" status because of the Jews perspective of her (they didn't like the "Herod crowd")
3.   Very "low" status because of the "Herod crowd" perspective because they were hanging out with the "low status" Jesus crowd
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