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Thessalonian & Corinthian Epistles
Azusa Pacific University
Dr. Ken Waters
September 11, 2002
"1Corinthians 1:1-2:16"



I.   References to the cross
A.   1Cor 1:13 - Is Christ divided? Was Paul crucified for you? Were you baptized into the name of Paul?
B.   1Cor 1:17 - For Christ did not send me to baptize, but to preach the gospel  not with words of human wisdom, lest the cross of Christ be emptied of its power.
C.   1Cor 1:18 - For the message of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God.
D.   1Cor 1:23 - but we preach Christ crucified: a stumbling block to Jews and foolishness to Gentiles,
E.   1Cor 2:2 - For I resolved to know nothing while I was with you except Jesus Christ and him crucified.
F.   1Cor 2:8 - None of the rulers of this age understood it, for if they had, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.
G.   Evidently there was a large emphasis on the cross - thus creates the theology of the cross
II.   Theology of the Cross
A.   An understanding of salvation history where the cross because the (single) instrument of God's saving purpose
B.   Paul & Mark seem to focus on this theology
C.   Three ways to look at the theology of the cross
1.   Appeasement of divine wrath (God wanted to release His wrath but because Christ was offered He was appeased)
2.   Atoning sacrifice/substitutionary atonement (Matthew, Mark & John)
3.   Cosmic victory (Luke) - Triumph over cosmic forces
a.   Sin
b.   Satan
c.   Death
4.   Paul sided with both - cosmic victory by atoning sacrifice (but sided towards atoning sacrifice)
D.   Jurgen Becker
1.   Theology of election - 1 & 2 Thessalonians (earliest reading)
2.   Theology of the Cross - 1 & 2 Corinthians
3.   Theology of Justification - Romans, Galatians & Philippians
III.   Appeasing divine wrath
A.   Leviticus 1:1-8:36 - types of tradition and sacrifices
1.   Burnt offering (holocost)
2.   Sin offering
3.   Guilt offering/Animal offering - required restitution
4.   Wave offering
5.   Grain offering
6.   The sin offering and the guilt offering are the only two that involve sacrifice for sin or forgiveness of sin
B.   The idea of sacrifice are more of a therapy or healing as apposed to appeasing divine wrath
IV.   Three main schools of thought during Paul's time on this matter
A.   Cynics
B.   Stoics
C.   Epicureans
D.   All agreed that Human Freedom or autonomy were the greatest achievement in life
V.   Be United - 1Cor 1:10-25
A.   Paul was struggling with a lot of division within the body of Christ
B.   Instead of using different "gods" in which the Greek's used to "side with" - the Christians were using the different Apostles as to be their followers
VI.   Gnostics combined humanity into three categories
A.   Pneumatikoi - spiritual ones - insiders
B.   Psychics - soulish ones
C.   Hylics - carnal/fleshly ones - outsiders
D.   Paul throws this theory right out the window
1.   Paul denies that they are spiritual
2.   Paul insists they are still fleshly (sarkinois) because of their divisions
3.   He doesn't suggest that he is not of the church; but rather insists they are fully members of the church
E.   Paul aims at bring congregational unity through apostolic unity
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