HomeAviationTravelPhotosMinistryResourcesBlogFunFilesXtraFilesResumeEmailTemp

Theology & the Christian Life
Azusa Pacific University
Dr. Russell Duke
September 10, 2002
"Introduction to Theology"

5 C's of theological history
A. Creation (Genesis 1-3)
B. Covenants (Genesis 9 - Hebrews 8)
C. Christ (Galatians 4:4)
1. Born of a woman (humanity)
2. Under the law (Jew under the Old Covenant)
D. Church (c.30 - Consummation (including present))
E. Consummation (completion of time/eschatology)
II. Creation
A. Basic Point: It is the poetic story of the creation of mankind
B. Questions that surround the text
1. What point were angels created
a. Cherubim (Gabriel, Michael, Lucifer)
b. Seraphim (With lot of wings, in charge of praising God)
c. Angelic Host
d. 4 Living Creatures (Man, Lion, Ox, Eagles)
2. What point were humans created
3. What point were hominids (half humans/Kansas man) created
C. Possible answers
1. No man can be older than 6,000 years old
2. The Bible is a record the human story
a. Imago Dei - we are created in the image of God and therefore Neanderthal men are not in the image of God
b. Humans are like God
c. Humans are not like God
i. God is spirit (John 4:24)
ii. God is an uncreated spirit
III. Covenants
A. Adam & Eve
1. Innocency Covenant (based on obedience)
2. Protoevangelian
a. Proto - first
b. ev (eu) - good
c. angelian - words
d. The First Good News - reference to a man (Messiah) to come
B. Noahic Covenant
1. Sign: Rainbow
2. Individual covenant
3. No worldwide flood that would destroy humanity
C. Abrahamic Covenant
1. Sign: Circumcision
2. Family covenant
3. Genesis 12:3b - in you all families will be blessed (emphasis mine)
D. Mosiac Covenant
1. Sign: Circumcision is continued, Sabbath was assigned (Ex 16)
2. National covenant
3. aka Covenant of the Law (Paul refers to it as the Law of Moses)
E. Davidic Covenant
1. Lineage of the Messiah
2. Jesse -> David -> Nathan
F. New Covenant
1. The blood and the bread/body
2. Luke 22;20, Hebrews 8:13-9
IV. The question of the Bible
A. Possible Theories
1. The Bible is the actual Word of God and is to be taken literally, word for word
2. The Bible is the inspired Word of God. It contains no errors, but some verses are to be taken symbolically rather than literally
3. The Bible is the inspired Word of God, but it may contain historic and scientific errors
4. The Bible was not inspired by God, but it represents humankinds best thoughts on God
5. The Bible is full of
B. Inspiration
1. A reference to anything which moves or excited a person; in particular, that act of the Holy Spirit upon the biblical writers which ensured that what they wrote was the Word of God
2. 2Timothy 3:16 - All Scripture is inspired by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for training in righteousness
3. Theories
a. Concursive Inspiration: The process by which God revealed truth simultaneously with the Scripture author's being moved to write
b. Dictation Theory of Inspiration: The view that God actually dictated the exact words the biblical writers recorded
c. Dynamic Theory of Inspiration: The view that God guided the biblical writer to the concepts that were to be recorded, but not to the actual choice of words
d. Illumination Theory of Inspiration: The idea that the Holy Spirit's work of inspiration merely heightened the normal powers of the authors of Scripture. He gave them no specific guidance in what they wrote (i.e. God inspired Paul to say, "hey I need to write Corinth," but then never inspired Paul to say anything particular)
e. Intuition Theory of Inspiration: The idea that inspiration involves a high degree of religious insight
f. Plenary Inspiration: The view that all of Scripture, not simply certain books or certain portions of books or certain types of material, is inspired
g. Verbal Theory of Inspiration: The doctrine that the Holy Spirit so guided the biblical writer that even the words and details of what God intended to be written (similar to Dictation Theory of Inspiration)
C. Difference between Inerrancy and Infallibility
1. All references to the original text
2. Infallibility
a. Definition: A reference to the variously interpreted doctrine that the Bible is free from error
b. Doctrine: The variously interpreted teaching that the Bible contains no error in that which it affirms
c. Infallibility expresses the thought of unfailing certainty, and does so especially on two matters.
D. 2Timothy 3 - 2Tim. 3:14 You, however, continue in the things you have learned and become convinced of, knowing from whom you have learned them; 15 and that from childhood you have known the sacred writings which are able to give you the wisdom that leads to salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus. 16 All Scripture is inspired by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for training in righteousness; 17 that the man of God may be adequate, equipped for every good work.
1. theopneustos - God breathed
2. Profitable
a. Teaching (doctrine)
b. Reproof (rebuke)
c. Correction
d. Training in Righteousness
3. Preparing & equipping
E. Internal (Biblical) Evidence of Canonization Authors
1. Paul
a. Knew he was to help write Scripture (Ephesians 3:3, 5; Colossians 1:25-26)
b. 2Timothy was probably the last book written by Paul, anticipating his death, in the mid 60s. He asked Timothy to bring "the books, especially the parchments" (4:13). Paul was collecting his letters apparently for their preservation. He viewed himself as one of the foundational apostles (Eph 2:20)
2. John/Mark
a. 2Timothy 4:11 - Luke and Mark were with Paul
b. 1Peter 5:13 - Later, Mark John was with Peter
c. Deduction: Mark may have taken the parchments to Peter upon the death of Paul (ca. 66 AD)
d. Luke's record in Acts was unfinished; perhaps taken by Mark to Peter
3. Peter
a. 2Peter 1:12-15 - Written during the persecution by Nero (64-67), Peter anticipated his imminent death, so he prepared to pass on the canon' to the future. He warns against Gnosticism:
i. 2Peter1:16 - "We" may refer to Peter and John as eyewitnesses of Jesus Christ
ii. 2Peter 1:19-21 - Peter says, "We have also a more sure word of prophecy," which parallels with the Old Testament prophecy (:21)
b. 2Peter 3:15-16 - Peter acknowledges the writings of Paul, "as also in all his epistlesÉin which are some things hard to be understood, which they that are unlearned and unstable wrest, as also the other scriptures, unto their own destruction."
c. Peter knew John would outlive him, for he would be martyred (John 21:18) and John would live out his life (John 21:20-23)
4. Interim
a. Church fled to Pella in 69 AD
b. Jerusalem fell in 70 AD
c. Texts extant by then; possibly gathered Peter
i. Mark, Matthew, Luke-Acts
ii. Paul's Epistles
iii. Probably Hebrews
iv. James
v. Peter
vi. Jude
5. John
a. Wrote Revelation after having received the vision while imprisoned on the isle of Patmos (1:9)
b. John had previously written the gospel to bring eternal life through Jesus to others (John 20:30-31). He brought a more graphic picture of Jesus to the world (John 21:24-25)
c. The epistles of John were written to combat growing Gnosticism toward the end of the 1st Century
d. 3John 5-8 John commends Gaius for his hospitality to brethren and strangers, and for not accepting the Gentiles (perhaps the Gnostics)
i. 3John9 - Diotrephes had rejected John
ii. 3John10 - Diotrephes purposefully slandered John; would not receive the brethren of John, so casting out those who did
iii. John canonized to counter Gnosticism
F. Development of the Canon over time
1. Marcion c. 140 AD
a. Very anti-Jewish
b. Didn't like Matthew, Mark or John because he was a Jew
c. Wouldn't include Acts because it starts about Jewish Christian
d. Present-Canonical Books included
i. Gospels: Luke
ii. Paul: Romans, 1Corinthians, 2Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1Thessalonians, 2Thessalonians, Philemon
e. Non-Present-Canonical Books included: none
2. Irenaeus c. 180
a. Present-Canonical Books included
i. Gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
ii. Luke: Acts
iii. Paul: Romans, 1Corinthians, 2Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1Thessalonians, 2Thessalonians, 1Timothy, 2Timothy, Titus
iv. Other: James, 1Peter, 1John, Revelation of John
b. Non-Present-Canonical Books included: Shepherd of Hermas
3. Muratorian Canon c.200
a. Present-Canonical Books included
i. Gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
ii. Luke: Acts
iii. Paul: Romans, 1Corinthians, 2Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1Thessalonians, 2Thessalonians, 1Timothy, 2Timothy, Titus
iv. Other: 1John, 2John, Jude, Revelation of John
v. Non-Present-Canonical Books included: Revelation of Peter, Wisdom of Solomon
4. Eusebuis c. 325
a. Present-Canonical Books included
i. Gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
ii. Luke: Acts
iii. Paul: Romans, 1Corinthians, 2Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1Thessalonians, 2Thessalonians, 1Timothy, 2Timothy, Titus
iv. Other: 1Peter, 1John, Revelation of John (?)
5. Non-Present-Canonical Books included: none
6. Athanasius c. 367
a. This is the full, final, Protestant (Western Church) Bible
b. Present-Canonical Books included
i. Gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
ii. Luke: Acts
iii. Paul: Romans, 1Corinthians, 2Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1Thessalonians, 2Thessalonians, 1Timothy, 2Timothy, Titus, Philemon
iv. Other: Hebrews, James, 1Peter, 2Peter, 1John, 2John, 3John, Jude, Revelation of John
c. Non-Present-Canonical Books included: none
G. Requirements of Canonization
1. Orthodoxy - If it correlates to previous writings and beliefs of God
2. Apostolicity - Had to be written by or under supervision of an Apostle
a. Matthew (original)
b. John (original)
c. Peter (original)
d. James (Jesus' brother)
e. Paul (Acts 13 - Holy Spirit assigns Paul to be an Apostle)
f. Luke (travels with Paul Acts 16:16)
g. Mark (travels with Paul until they get in a "fight" then he probably went to go work with Peter)
h. Jude (Jesus' brother, direct reference to being the brother of James the brother of Jesus)
i. Hebrews (Probably one of Paul's students, or maybe Apollos)
3. Universality - Does this apply to all people, all locations, of all time
V. Revelation of God
A. Purpose of Revelation: To bring us to a relationship with God
B. General Revelation
1. Specific Evidence: Creation
2. The universe and earth attest enough of God's presence
3. Rom. 1:20 For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made, so that they are without excuse.
a. What they don't do
i. Give thanks
ii. Honor Him
b. What we can know
i. Eternal power
ii. Divine natural (Godhead)
c. What we can't know
i. Salvation
ii. Biblical History
iii. This is where the need of the Bible & Jesus Christ comes in (2Tim 3:15)
4. Imago Dei - In the image of God we can see through each other glimpses of God
C. Specific Revelation
1. Specific Evidence: The Bible & Jesus Christ
2. 2Tim. 3:15 and that from childhood you have known the sacred writings which are able to give you the wisdom that leads to salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus.
VI. Specific message about foreign Gods
A. Paul's claim about Christ
1. He suffered
2. He died
3. He raised/resurrected (anastasis - feminine term of resurrection)
B. "Unknown God" vs. Jesus (Acts 17:24-34)
1. Paul says he is going to make the Unknown God known to these people
2. The nature of God is the center of his message
a. Creator - made the whole world and all things
b. Mobile - not limited to the temples
c. Sufficient - no needs that are supplied by us
d. Life Giver - gives life to all good things
e. Providential - He places humans where He wants them; He rules over all nations
f. Omnipresence - There is no limit of His Spirit (His Spirit is simple)
g. Personal - He created us to seek a personal relationship
h. Judge - He will judge evil
i. Fair/Just - He gives everyone a chance
j. Authority over Death - He has the ability to rise anyone from the dead
Temp_SideAd3