Senior Seminar: Politics & Religion
Azusa Pacific University
Dr. Brad Hale
September 20, 2004
"Globalization in World History"

I.   Chapter 3 – "Archaic" and "Modern" Globalization in the Eurasian and African Arena, ca. 1750-1850
A.   Consumption Theory
1.   Cosmic Kings – each ruler wanted to take from the world and bring to their own country (pg. 50)
2.   Cause of Religion – pilgrimages and missionary work increased travel (pg. 52)
3.   Specialized Products – were taken from specialized areas to the rest of the world (medicines, tapestry, & "addictive commodities")
B.   It initially was based on consumption but then grew into a larger capital project that was no longer capable of being managed by single countries
C.   Difference between Archaic & Modern
1.   Archaic: imperialism at its best (aesthetic desire)
2.   Modern: capitalism at its best (practical desire)
II.   Chapter 4 – Muslim Universalism and Western Globalization
A.   This chapter addresses both these dimensions by looking at the Islamic world as a particularly successful example of archaic globalization, a participant in proto-globalization, and an area challenged by and challenging modern and postcolonial globalization (pg 73)
1.   Use of Arabic
2.   Umma – category for the universal Muslim category – Muslims were Muslims regardless of where they lived
3.   Dar al-Harb – the rest of the non-Muslim world that was still considered Allah's sovereign country
B.   Proto-globalization – multi-centered phenomenon strengthened by active Muslim participants
III.   Chapter 5 – The Collaboration of Labor: Slaves, Empires, and Globalizations in the Atlantic World, ca. 1600-1850
A.   Desire to distribute labor and commodities globally
1.   Slavers were taken from Africa to Colonies
2.   Commodities were taken from Colonies to Western Europe
3.   Imports were re-Exported from Western Europe to the rest of the world
IV.   Chapter 6 –
A.   Introduction (Pg 116)
1.   Sociological discussions of knowledge and globalization, however, are often hampered by a narrow chronological framework resulting in a frequent insistence on the unprecedented nature of contemporary change
2.   At the broadest level, in bringing together the themes of empire, globalization, and knowledge, this chapter suggests fertile avenues for future research
3.   THESIS: Between 1760 and 1850, the various political, economic, and cultural networks that comprised the British empire became markedly more extensive, while the flows of people, goods, and ideas along these networks were greatly intensified
B.   The 1760s as a Globalizing Decade (Pg 118)
1.   Closer attention must be paid to the shifts in the British imperial system in the three decades following the 1760s, when scientific exploration, commercial expansion, and the consolidation of colonial states fashioned new bodies of knowledge and cultural networks
2.   Here I support Marshall's contention: the transformation and expansion of British interests (both governmental and private) in Asia and the Pacific led to a "swing to the East" insofar as these regions took on a cultural and intellectual significance that was disproportionate to their economic contribution to empire
C.   Producing States and Empires: Surveying (Pg 120)
1.   Around 450 European ships crossed the Pacific between 1521 and 1769, but the geography and the peoples of the Pacific remained largely unknown
2.   European knowledge of Indian geography underwent a similarly abrupt shift in the 1760s; the East India Company's assumption of political authority both depended upon and facilitated the rapid extension of cartographic knowledge
3.   Matthew Edney has shown that the map was a central object in the construction of India as a political territorial unit and that, "the ideal of systematic mapping" enabled administrator to "reinforce and legitimate the conceptual image of their empire"
D.   The Cartographic Imagination (Pg 122)
1.   THESIS POINT #1: Cartography therefore played two important roles in imperial globalization
a.   It facilitated the emergence of a truly global picture of the world while at the same time &
b.   Helping to constitute a political order that divided the world into distinct nations and regions
2.   There can be no doubting the absolute centrality of geography in shaping British understandings of the world in this age of proto-globalization
3.   For, as Wyld explained in an accompanying booklets, there were no bounds to English power and it was the "destiny" of the English "to people the world."
E.   Images of Global Empire (Pg 123)
1.   William Robertson on the publication of his History of AmericaÉ"now the Great Map of Mankind is unrolled at once; and there is no state of Gradation of barbarism, and no mode of refinement which we have not at the same instant under our View. The very different Civility of Europe and China. The barbarism of Persia and Abyssinia. The erratick manners of Tartary, and of Arabia. The Savage State of North America, and of New Zealand
F.   Print and Exhibitions: Ordering and Circulating Knowledge (Pg 124)
1.   THESIS POINT #2: The printing press was influential in ordering & circulation knowledge that spurred enthusiasm for globalization
a.   From the 1790s, the press was embraced as a key instrument by the proliferating missionary organizations. For evangelicals the printing press was a central tool for dissemination of instructional literature, and missionary reports of souls saved and the heathen awaiting the gospel were also vital fund-raising tools.
b.   This in turn facilitated the emergence of a comparative and global understanding of culture, where accounts of Indian deities could be compared to the beliefs of ancient Greeks or Romans, or the Polynesian culture hero, Maui, compared to the Vedic god, Yama, or the boar avatar of Vishnu
2.   The exhibitions that proliferated throughout the industrial world in the nineteenth century were guided by a "spirit of encyclopaedism," constructing increasingly organized and precise views of commerce, technology, and culture
G.   Empire and Ethnology: From Proto-Globalization to State Ethnologies (Pg 128)
1.   Prichard's universalism was shared by many of his fellow members of the Aborignes' Protection Society, which dedicated itself to the study of "native customs" and the protection of "native rights" in the face of the pressures of rapidly growing settler populations
2.   No only that the boundaries between peoples, even within Europe, were rigid but at the same time celebrated the uniqueness of the English character
H.   An Architecture of Knowledge: Local and State Knowledges (Pg 130)
1.   What united the military survey, the recruiter's manual, and the revenue report as ethnographies was their concern with standardization and measurement; the attributes of any given community could be expressed through statistics, summarized in a table or plotted on a map
2.   Hatcher's social history of education in early colonial Bengal has stressed that the entrance of pandits (religious experts) into Company service reflected shifts in the geopolitics and economics of indigenous knowledge production
3.   While acknowledging the "domination and exploitation" integral to a colonial regime, Irschick insists that although this encounter was painful, it was also constructive and creative, fashioning a new body of information and understandings that were truly hybridized: "neither European' nor indigenous.'"
4.   Statistics, perhaps the most universal of languages by the mid nineteenth century, provided a common idiom for the projection of state power
I.   An Architecture of Knowledge: Regionalization and Globalization (Pg 133)
1.   Many of the new maps from the 1770s through the early nineteenth century, although full of new detail, presented images that framed Australia and New Zealand against Asia. this conceptual geography was reinforced at a linguistic level by the use of the term Australasia to designate Australia, New Zealand, and their outlying islands: the neologism was coined by Charles de Brosses in his discussion of the structure of the Indian Ocean world in 1756 and entered the English language shortly afterward
2.   Two distinct Pacific races (approximating the later division between Melanesians and Polynesians) whose origins could be traced to two parent populations in the "Indian Asiatic isles."
J.   An Imperial Knowledge System (Pg 136)
1.   The British Pacific itself served as an important reference point for imperial exploration and surveying: the complexity of the cartographic cross-currents within the empire is further illustrated by the use of the marine surveying methods developed by Cook and perfected by George Vancouver in British surveys of the African coast between 1816 and 1826
2.   What is most striking about the vision of these scholars is that their awareness of deforestation and climatic change that their awareness of deforestation and climatic change anticipated many of the concerns that are commonly seen as characteristic of late twentieth-century globalization
K.   Conclusion (Pg 138)
1.   THESIS POINT #3: Although globalization was spurred by the increase of cartography & statistics, it eventually moves to a state of mind rather than charts & financial transactions
a.   First, his reassessment of colonial science suggests that significant intellectual developments, and by extension globalization itself, can be driven by change in distant "peripheries," not just in metropolitan centers.
b.   Second, Grove's work encourages us to think of empires as a series of overlapping networks
c.   Third, and following from this, globalization is as much a state of mind as it is a series of financial transactions or shifts in technology that can be rendered in charts
2.   CONCLUSION: Between 1760 & 1850 &it is in this period that we can observe the progressive undercutting of a cosmopolitan culture of archaic globalization, grounded in long-distance trade, merchant diasporas, and elite consumption, by the reorientation of British imperial ambitions
V.   Chapter 7 – Empire, Diaspora, and the Languages of Globalism, 1850-1914
A.   Capital is the new gunship of the rich, labor is the new weapon of the poor
VI.   Chapter 8 – The Onrush of Modern Globalization in China
A.   China was trading and spreading far before the globalization trend began in the west
B.   China and the west needed each other to birth the concept of globalization
1.   Established links that were already there (pg. 175)
2.   The western introduction to the developed South East Asia trade establishments
VII.   Chapter 9 – Globalization, Ethnicity and Democracy: A View from "the Hopeless Continent"
A.   Questions that Africa's problems are caused by tribalism, but rather the poverty created out of the globalization influence of the West
1.   Africa is not by nature more brutal than other areas of the world
2.   Africa is an under populated area and very mobile – so power can not be solidified given the lack of consistent people base
VIII.   Chapter 10 – Globalization with and without Empires: from Bali to Labrador
A.   Globalization/Imperialization are only enhanced when there is an economic gain to do so
1.   Example: Near-coastal cities in Canada were left alone because they had no value for fishing (coastal town) or mineral reserves (in-land)
IX.   Chapter 11 – American Globalism: Mass, Motion, and the Multiplier Effect
A.   To be defined as American is easier to be done by defining what we are not as apposed to what we are
B.   American globalization is the spread of efficiency as well as adapting to the locality
1.   McDonalds in China has a "Little Emperor's Birthday Party" – that is American but then definitely Chinese
2.   Starbucks taking an "Italian coffee shop" making it "American" and then sending it back out to the rest of the world with different local-qwerks that adapt to the locality
X.   Hale's Points of Interest
A.   Issues of Continuity vs. Change
B.   Issues of alternative models of globalization
C.   Is globalization simply a phenomenon that is simply outside of our control or can it be managed