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Romans & Galatians
Azusa Pacific University
Dr. Kathryn Smith
January 24, 2002
"Romans 1:1-1:18"

I.   Introduction to the Book of Romans
A.   Romans & Galatians
1.   Similarities
a.   Habakkuk 2:4 very important passage in both
b.   Both deal with law and justification
c.   Themes are very closely related
d.   Both audiences are Gentile audiences
2.   Differences
a.   Primary Difference: Rhetoric
i.   Romans: Gentile & Appraising
1.   Paul felt he had no authority over them because he didn't start the church
2.   Cleary he knows that the Romans have heard about him even though he has never visited them so he feels he has to sway them
ii.   Galatians: Harsh
1.   Galatians is a church that he started
2.   The church was very threatened (Paul is scared for them)
3.   Paul feels it is his job to straighten them out
B.   History - 49-50 AD
1.   All Jews were kicked out of Rome by Emperor Claudius
a.   Jews were arguing about a guy named Chrestus (Christ)
b.   Doesn't say Jews & Christians; but just Jews - there still wasn't a separate religion
c.   Informs us that the Jesus movement had a huge influence if had grown to Rome by 49 AD (16 years after Christ's death)
2.   Gentiles in the "Jesus Movement" did not have to leave
3.   Jews are allowed to return in 54-55 AD
a.   For five years the Gentiles were allowed to live as "Jesus Jews" with out Jewish influence on their lifestyle
b.   There was probably tension, both religiously and socially because the Jews had to leave and the Gentiles got to stay
4.   The Big Question: when the Jews came back were there now "two church bodies" or did they form back into one believing body
C.   Purpose of Romans
1.   Paul informs them he is heading west (to Spain)
a.   He knows he has no authority in Rome
b.   It is like he knows he is coming by and wants a welcoming party
2.   To explain Paul's apostolic ministry to the Gentiles
D.   Themes
1.   Justification by faith
a.   Problem that is being addressed is how are the Gentiles going to access the promises that are promised to Israel? - It's a missions question
b.   Problem that is not being addressed here in Romans is how to I get saved?
2.   Ethics
a.   From Chapter 12 on is about how do we live
b.   Goes from Macro (Ch. 1-11) to the Individual (Ch. 12-End)
E.   The Text
1.   1:1-7 Introduction
a.   Most likely not Paul's original writing but rather a "liturgical chant" from the early church - then applied to Paul
b.   Basically sums up that it is his job to go to the gentiles
c.   Paul possibly concludes that Jesus became God at the resurrection
2.   1:8-17 Paul's Audience
a.   Gentile (Roman) Christians
b.   Paul is relatively uncomfortable with them
3.   1:16-17 The Righteousness of God
a.   OT & NT different views of today's view of righteousness
OT & NT Times
21st Century American
Justice, victory, vindication
Pure, right before God, holy, godly
b.   Thought of more as a "macro"-level
c.   Best way to understand Righteousness as Paul uses it could be defined as "setting right" (both individually and corporately)
d.   Rom. 1:16 I am not ashamed of the gospel, because it is the power of God for the salvation of everyone who believes: first for the Jew, then for the Gentile.
i.   With this knowledge of righteousness it is easier to look at Rom 1:16 passage - of course God is going to want Israel set "right" first before the Gentiles
e.   Rom. 1:17 For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith; as it is written, "But the righteous man shall live by faith." (NASB)
i.   The concept of from faith to faith - meaning from Israel's faith God will be vindicated to the rest of the world
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