Romans & Galatians
Azusa Pacific University
Dr. Kathryn Smith
January 17, 2002
"Paul the Man"

I.   Paul the Pharisee
A.   Philemon 3:5 "as to the law, a Pharisee"
B.   Main Pharisaic beliefs:
1.   General resurrection of the dead
a.   There will come a time in the end of days when all of the righteous will be raised from death
b.   Different views of if bad people would raised; some thought they just would not rise and be dead for eternity
2.   Providence and faith - God had a personal interaction with our lives
3.   Traditional interpretation of Bible
a.   Developed a system of rules to interpret the Bible
b.   Somewhat to the effects of how our courts develop a system of putting worth on a specific crime (example: theft = 5 years, rape = 20 years, murder = life, etc &)
C.   Pharisaic ethics
1.   Based on holiness
2.   Priestly holiness extended to all [male] Israelites
a.   Pharisees thought of themselves as a "kingdom of priests"
b.   Since they were all priests they set up rules for the entire nation of Israel to keep that only originally priests were commanded to obey
c.   This created a lot of "rules & laws" that they expected everyone to follow that aren't follow in the Bible
d.   Pharisees were the only group of Jews that survived the temple destruction because they didn't require it for worship
3.   Romans 12:1 I appeal to you therefore, brothers and sisters, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is your spiritual worship.
4.   No conflict between holiness and grace
II.   Paul the Man
A.   A Diaspora Jew - a Jew outside of Jerusalem that was there because of the dispersion of Israel
1.   Persecuted believers (Gal 1:13-14)
2.   Motives - religious, social, political
a.   Saw "the Way" movement as a serious threat to the religious, social, and political aspects of Israel
b.   Better to sacrifice the few (Christian leaders, etc &) than to destroy the entire social group
c.   This was also a way to demonstrate his faithfulness both politically and religiously to Israel
3.   Threats to social boundaries
B.   Call and Mission (Gal 1-2)
1.   Claims apostolic authority
a.   Apostle = shaliach (definition: an agent being sent out)
b.   Galatians 1:1 Paul an apostle sent neither by human commission nor from human authorities, but through Jesus Christ and God the Father, who raised him from the dead  2 and all the members of God's family who are with me,"
c.   Claims that his apostolic authority does not come from man but straight from Jesus Christ
d.   The Christians had huge requirements for an apostle that Paul did not meet
e.   He has got to prove his Apostleship - not just handed to him
2.   Claims direct revelation - Galatians 1:15-17
3.   "Call" leads to Gentile mission
a.   Similarities to Jeremiah the Prophet - being called in the womb
b.   Paul refers to his "conversion" not as a conversion; but as a "call"
c.   Not only was he called directly by God but he was called to the Gentiles
d.   Luke's version - conversion vs. Paul's version - call
i.   No need for conversion
ii.   No need for a change of religion
iii.   Paul never calls himself a "Christian"
III.   Chronology - strictly what Paul mentions himself
A.   Call occurs in Damascus
B.   Paul goes to Arabia
C.   Returns to Damascus (for 3 years)
D.   First visit to Jerusalem
E.   Travels to Syria & Cilicia (14 years) - moves to Antioch and meets Barnabas
F.   Second visit to Jerusalem
1.   Not taken very well by the Jews up unto this point
2.   Paul makes his case before Peter
3.   Galatians 2:9 - James, Peter, John offer the hand of fellowship to Paul
4.   By the end of this trip the Jews are commissioning him to the Gentiles
G.   Death
1.   Per tradition, in Rome (neither Luke or Paul make mention of this)
2.   Early to mid-60s
3.   Nero's persecution