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Introduction to the Modern Middle East
Jerusalem University College
Mr. Oded Yinon
October 23, 2003
"Rise of Modern Israel & the Final Fall of the Ottoman Empire"

I.   The precedent of American occupation
A.   Germany
B.   Japan
C.   Dismantle the country, and then rebuild it so that they will never go to war again
D.   Andy's Interpretation: The world needs to look at the Germany and Japan and then it will be obvious that the occupation of Iraq will make for a better Iraq
II.   The first modern settlers of Palestine were not Jews but rather Christian members of the "west"
A.   1852 - America (First schools)
B.   England
C.   Russia
D.   Germany (First hospitals)
E.   Eventually ever European nation besides France came and settled in Palestine
III.   Palestinians attempted to leave the area but the surrounding Arab countries told them "no" and made them return as refuges - CHECK FOR ACCURACY OF THIS STATEMENT
A.   For most Palestinians, the area of Palestine represents jobs/work - a mere tool of survival
B.   This would explain why most Palestinians don't "fight" for the area - it is only a select minority
IV.   The Arabs didn't care about the Christian and Jews before the 19th century because up until that point they had confidence in the fact that they were the "superior" people
A.   It was only after the "fall of the Muslim world" when the persecution of Christians and Jews began
B.   It is the same type of thing with terrorism today - it comes out of an insecurity that the Muslim way of life will no longer will remain "superior" in the region
V.   Ottoman Reform (in Turkey)
A.   Phase 1 - 1718-1768
1.   Tulips Era
2.   Beatification - if it worked for "Rome" and the West it might work for us
3.   Old Guard Resist - 1768-1774
B.   Phase II - 1789-1806
1.   Selim III
2.   Modernizing Monarch all alone
3.   Everything was copied from the west
4.   Two system rule
a.   Old system fights
b.   New army falls in wars
5.   Empire in mortal danger in 1798-1808
VI.   Egypt and the Middle East
A.   Egypt is far older than anything else in the middle east - although ancient Egypt looks nothing like modern Egypt
B.   Demographics
1.   64 million people
2.   All Arab speaking
3.   90% Muslim
C.   Egypt was a Christian nation (or at least had 50% Christians) from early in the 1st millennium until the 19th century
D.   Development of Egypt
1.   10th-11th century - Shiites Fattmids rule Egypt
2.   1187 - Ayyubids
3.   1260-1517 - Mamlones conquer
4.   1517 - Ottomans (250 years)
a.   1517-25 - Acquisition
b.   1526-86 - Quiescence - 60 years of order
c.   1586-1711 - Years of chaos
d.   1711-98 - Grandees rule local rulers (Arab)
5.   1798-1809 - Napoleon Era (Brittish-Ottomans)
a.   It took less than three weeks the French to take Egypt
b.   Egypt was chosen by Napoleon to be his "home" base in the region
c.   A secular, "Christian"/Athiest decided that Egypt was important and ever since then Egypt has been
d.   Britain took notice and made it their most important foothold in the region because it controlled the passageway from England and their main colony India
e.   A lot Egypt's "modern history" is centered around the Suez Canal which was completed in 1869
6.   Foreign Interests in Egypt (1789-1839)
a.   Powers
i.   Russia - Anti-Ottoman
ii.   France
i.   Anti-Ottoman
ii.   Egypt Ally
iii.   Britain - Anti-Egypt
iv.   Austria
i.   Anti-Egypt
ii.   Pro-Ottoman
b.   Minorities
i.   Europeans
i.   French
ii.   Italian
ii.   Greek
iii.   Local
i.   Copts (Christians)
ii.   Noians
iii.   Beoduins
7.   1803-05 - Muhammad Ali
a.   Muhammad Ali created Egyptian-importance, yet because of this he also created Egyptian-occupation and the West hasn't left them alone since
b.   1789-1848 (Napoleon was 1789-1821)
c.   He was not an Arab
d.   He was not a Muslim - Like Napoleon, he "represented" a religious interest, yet really did not believe in God
e.   He was a foreigner
f.   Characteristics - illiterate, trader, soldier, general, accountant, exporter, farmer, genius, manager, not college educated, brutal ruler (not as bad as Saddam), great leader (not as good as Nasser)
g.   He created cotton to be the main source of income for the country
i.   This was great for them originally and brought great wealth
ii.   In 1839 the world-cotton prices dropped by half which created incredible economic collapse
8.   1805-08 - Four Egyptian War Campaigns
a.   1811-18 - Arab war (Arab Penn - Hijaz)
b.   1822-39 - Sudan War
c.   1822-29 - Greek War (M.Ali stopped in Istanbul)
d.   1831-39 - Syrian War
9.   1882 - Britain seized control of Egypt's government - although they still maintained nominal allegiance to Ottoman until 1914
E.   Egypt from Empire to Colony (1863-1882)
1.   The Suez Canal
a.   The money was loaned by a Jew - Rothchild
b.   The Egyptian government was corrupt
c.   England took over the area
d.   This is why the Egyptian people are fairly skeptical of the west
e.   Egypt was on its way to modernity (returning to its empire), yet it was then imperialized as a colony of England
2.   The debt of Egypt - the ultimate killer
Loan Name

Yr

Money Promised (mil )
Money Received (mil )
Interest
Loaning Bank
Sa'id Loan
1862
3.2
2.6
10
German
Isma'il First Loan
1864
5.7
4.8
12.7
German
Anglo-Egyptian Loan
1865
3.3
2.7
12.6
Anglo-Egyptian
Railway Loan
1866
3
2.6
26.9
German
Mustafa Pasha Loan (Ottoman)
1867
2
1.7
15.1
Ottoman
Al-Mufatish Loan
1868
11
7.1
13.2
Oppenheim
Idahria Loan
1870
7
5
13/4
German
Last Loan
1873
32
19.9
12.6
Oppenheim
Total
68.4
46.7
a.   Egypt had to pay interest on the amount promised, not the amount received
b.   The last loan was taken in order to pay for the other loans, which means that only 20 mil was actually used, where as they had to pay interest on 68.4 mil
c.   With the massive debt incurred, combined with America becoming the main cotton export in the world meant Egyptian economic collapse
VII.   Final fall of the Ottoman Empire
A.   By the beginning of the 1800s, the empire was 90% Muslim
1.   This created a large sense of unity that made a very strong economic, and social status
2.   Even with four significant losses in war they still were able to maintain themselves because of their unity
B.   By 1882, the Ottoman Empire is 50% Turks and 50% Arabs
C.   Economic Decline
1.   1850 Budges
a.   Expenses
i.   20% Sultan
ii.   50% Army/Navy
iii.   25% Wages
iv.   5% Public Works
b.   Income
i.   30% Land/Houses
ii.   27% Customes
iii.   32% Jizia (Poll Tax - Christians)
iv.   6% Egypt
v.   4% Others
2.   After Christians (and other minorities) became equal' citizens within Turkey, there was now no longer anyone paying taxes
3.   Therefore there are two options
a.   Inflation
b.   Loans - by the end of the "loaning process" Ottoman has taken over £ 200 million
VIII.   Nationalism in the Middle East (1882-Today)
A.   Imperialism = European control
1.   Emergence of Arabism
2.   Decline of Ottoman Empire
3.   WWI (1914-17)
B.   Islam & Arabism response to west, Christianity, & secularism
1.   Arabs vs Turks
2.   Arabs separation from Islam-Christ
3.   Lebanese nationalism (1860)
C.   Separation of Arabs from Ottomanism & the Ottoman Empire
D.   "Christian" Lebanese Nation (1860)
E.   Anti-Ottomanism in Islamic context & Anti-Islam in Arab context = secular Arabism
F.   Modern Arab Nationalism
1.   Al Husri 1918
2.   Arabism, Islam, Egypt
3.   Main components (1918)
a.   Rashidrida (1898)
b.   Islam-Arab Nationalisim
c.   Anti-Ottoman
d.   Anti-Turk
e.   
4.   Al Nawanbi - Anti-Turk - Originator of Arabism (1898)
5.   Salafia - Origin of Arab People
6.   Pure Islamic
G.   Egypt-Arab Islam
1.   Egypt Nationalism
a.   Modern, West, Secular vs Arabl Islam Traditon
b.   Mustafa Namal
c.   Patriotism
2.   Egypt 1882-1914 - Beginning of Nationalism
a.   Under British occupation
b.   British iron rule
c.   Ottoman Nominal "Rule"
3.   European Control (Financial) Egyptian Monarchy
4.   Dynasty rule (M. Ali)
5.   Egyptian Arab popular "Rule"
6.   Ottoman (1882-1914)
a.   Modern state + Islam power + Military Dictatorship
b.   1908 - German influence
c.   US, Britain Suez canal vs straits
d.   Istanbul vs. Cairo
e.   Egypt vs. Ottomans, Britain (France), US, & Germany
H.   World war + end Ottoman Empire begins Arab Era-Nationalism
Nationalism in the Middle East (1882-Current)
Anti-West
Anti-Christ
Anti-Arab
Anti-Islam
Anti-Zion
Anti-Turk Anti-Otto

Ottoman

X
X

Lebanese National

X
X
X

Egyptian National

X
X
X

Arab National

X
X
X

Islamic National

X
X
X
X

Turkish National

X
X
X
1.   The only unifying aspect of Nationalism in the Middle East is anti-Zion
2.   My question is do they have a right to be anti-Zion - should they be?
IX.   Turkey - Kemalist Republic (1923-1938)
A.   Oct 1925
1.   Fez (Hat) out
2.   Europeanization starts
3.   Kurd Revolt Over (1925-27)
4.   Real changes ban on religion
a.   Ban on religious cloths
b.   Western cloths
5.   Al Azhard (Cairo 1955)
6.   Denounce Acts vs. Islam (1925)
7.   Turkish calendar in Muslim lunar calendar out
B.   Dec 25, 1925
1.   Georgian year in use
2.   International 24 hour clock
3.   Greenwich occur in Muslim time out
4.   Female cloth out
5.   No veil allowed
C.   Lan Reform
1.   Swiss family come in (as governmental leadership)
2.   Shari'ia (ruling Islamic "council")
a.   Out in towns
b.   Still remains in rural areas
D.   Religion is out (1927)
E.   Stiff resistance (1925-27) - Opposition is out (1927)
F.   Attempt to change regime
1.   Foiled, death sentences passed to those who supported
2.   Sept 27, 1927
a.   Rpp takes over (Ataturk)
b.   Third Parliament Open (PPP out)
c.   Secularization beings
d.   36-hour speech (fillabuster)
G.   Turkey - a "lay" state
H.   Arabic script out - Latin script in
I.   August 9, 1928
1.   Ataturk teaches people
2.   Democracy begins
J.   5-year plan (1933-38)
K.   1935 - Muslim names out - European names in
L.   Six holy principles
1.   Republic
2.   Nationalism
3.   Secularism
4.   Revolution
5.   Etatism
6.   Populism
M.   Modernization Elements
1.   Etatism enacted 1930
2.   No state monopolies
3.   No state economy
4.   Muslim names out - European names in
5.   Weekly holiday = Muslim holiday Friday out - Secularized holiday Saturday in
6.   Totally anti-Islamic (not anti-Muslim) laws
7.   Old Muslim titles out - new titles in
N.   Contemporary Turkey
1.   UN Member
2.   NATO Member
3.   US Ally
4.   "Supportive" of Israel (although this is fairly an inaccurate statement)
5.   Does not consider itself "apart" of the Middle East
6.   Essentially "denies" the past as not being who they are (this also isn't exactly true, but a good way of looking at how they view the change of their nation by saying, "the old nation wasn't even us")
X.   Arab Palestinian Nationalism (1882-1939)
A.   Three Stages
1.   Stage I (1882-1891)
2.   Stage II (191-1914)
3.   Stage III (1917-1939)
B.   Arab reaction to Zionism
1.   Initially
a.   Ambivilant
b.   They didn't think this return to Israel was going to last
2.   1891-1914
a.   Petitions
b.   Marches
c.   Papers
d.   Articles
e.   Demonstrations
f.   Ottoman policy failed while Zionism moved
g.   1908-1914
i.   Crystallization of Arab opposition
ii.   Ottoman loyalty
iii.   Local patriotism
C.   Arab Ideology
1.   1891 Petition
2.   Rejection immigration & land accusation
3.   1913 Peace talks
D.   WWI - 1914-1917
1.   British occupation of the land
2.   Nov 2, 1917 - Balfour Paper
3.   1917-1918 - Harsh opposition
4.   Five states created from British occupation
a.   South Syria
b.   Palestinian
c.   Anti-Zionism to Anti-Mandate (1920)
i.   1921 riots
ii.   Arab-British strife
d.   Political actions (1924)
e.   Failure of Arab Diplomacy
i.   Rise of Mufti of Jerusalem (1929)
ii.   1929 Riots
E.   Arab-British clashes
1.   Jews massacre
2.   Riots all over
3.   1929-31: British policy papers
F.   1933 - Hitler wins, Jews come in
G.   Zionism: British Mandate Era (1917-1947)

Year

Aliya #
Departure From
Population
Result
1882
First
Russia
30,000
90% Left to USA
1906
Second
Russia
25,000
90% Left to USA
1921
Third
Russia
25,000
40% remained
1924
Fourth
Poland
80,000
Majority stays
1936
Fifth
Germany
120,000
All stay
H.   Arab revolt (1936-1939)
1.   Land
2.   Immigration
3.   British policy
a.   Failure of Moderation
b.   Extreme Politics of Mufti Arab
i.   States interference
ii.   Hashemites (Iraq, Jordan)
iii.   Radical Arab politics win
4.   1936 - strife, riots, violence
a.   First stage: April 1936-mid 1937 - anarchy all over
b.   Second stage 1937-Oct 1938
5.   Peel commission Partition
a.   Murder of Anrews
b.   British move against terrorists
c.   Land occupied again
d.   30,000 soldiers conquer
6.   1939 End of Revolt
a.   Arab failure
b.   British policy change
I.   World War II: Build up of Jewish Palestine - War Effort
1.   Jews 600,000
2.   Arabs 1,200,000
3.   Arabs control 80% of country industry, agriculture
4.   Assets: British only military
5.   1947: UN Partition
a.   Arabs Received %70 of land
b.   Rejected
6.   1948 war
a.   6,000 Jews died
b.   640 ??? Arabs left
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