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Introduction to the Modern Middle East
Jerusalem University College
Mr. Oded Yinon
October 9, 2003
"The Fall of the Ottoman Empire"

I.   Fall of the Ottoman Empire 1560-1699
A.   Jihad ends
1.   Nothing left to conquest
2.   No raison d'etre (reason to be)
B.   Swift economic decline
1.   No tax (dhimi)
2.   Rapid inflation
3.   Silver very cheap
4.   Undermine currency
C.   No efficient rulers
D.   Slave systems breaks - elites give jobs to hereditary
E.   Corruption/graft
F.   America discovered in 1492
1.   Shifts the emphasis of the "discovery" to the west and leaves the east
2.   New trade routes around Ottomans
G.   Better, stronger foes - Europe
H.   Decadence in elite
I.   Minorities (dhimis) find European patrons and trade partners
J.   Breakup of unitary Ottoman system - in all spheres
K.   Losing battles all the time
1.   1592-ff they started losing all there battles
2.   It was the first time in their history they were "losers"
II.   This is what has lead to terrorism - "I'm a Muslim and I had a proud past and I want to return the world to that."
III.   European Minorities Affecting the Ottoman Empire
Country
Minority in Middle East
France
Maronites
Greece
Greek Orthodox
Russia
Russian Orthodox
Austria/Hungry
Catholics
Greek Catholics
England
Anglicans
Protestant
Jews/Druws
USA
Protestant
Germany
Lutherans/Protestants
Italy (1860)
Catholics
Spain
Catholics
Serbia (1875)
Greek Orthodox
IV.   Modernization
A.   Change - Bid'a
B.   Western Invasion of thoughts & ideas
1.   1591-1699
2.   1789-1800
C.   Ottoman Foes
1.   Austria - 1521-1699
2.   France - 1774-1806
3.   Russia - 1521-1921
D.   Source of Modernization/Change in the Middle East
Source of Change
Years
Islamic Country
Austria
1699-1806
Ottomans
France
1806-1871
Ottomans, Egypt
Germany
1871-1918
Ottomans
Britain & France
1918-1936
Arab States
USSR
1945-1989
Egypt, Syria, Iraq
USA
1973-ff
Egypt
1.   For a 100 years the Ottoman empire "admired" the Austrian empire so they sent students there to study war techniques
2.   According to Oded: Arabs made an alliance with Germany in World War II (check this out for bias)
3.   Germany and USSR eventually lost their world power while still attempting to influence the Middle East (especially the Arab countries)
a.   Essentially leaving them by myself at the mercy of the United State which used to be their enemy
b.   Everything that started in 1699 returned back to the beginning in 1989 after the fall of the Soviet Union
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