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Introduction to the Modern Middle East
Jerusalem University College
Mr. Oded Yinon

"Very Brief History of the Middle East"

I.   Arabs
A.   100 years rule only
B.   Inner Middle East "Arabized"
C.   Periphery Islamic - not Arabized - most Islamic nations are not Arab
D.   Turns dominantly Islam in 20th century
E.   Most Arabs are in Northern Africa (80%) & 20% are east of Israel (Middle East)
II.   Islamic Empires
Empires
Ummayid
Abbasyd
Fatimid
Ayyubid
Seldjuk
Mamluk
Ottoman
Dynasty*
Arab
Non Arab
Shiites
Kurd Suni
Turk Suni
Turk Suni
Turk Suni
Country
Syria
Iraq
Egypt
Egypt
Anatolia
Egypt
Anatolia
Capital
Damascus
Baghdad
Cairo
Cairo
Cairo
Istanbul
Century
7th-8th
8th-13th
10th-11th
11th-12th
11th-13th
11th-14th
14th-20th
Muslim
Minor
Major
Minor
Minor
Major
Major
Major
Non-Muslim
Major
Minor
Major
Major
Minor
Minor
Minor
Arab
Minor
Minor
Minor
Minor
Minor
Major
Minor
Non-Arab
Major
Major
Major
Major
Major
Minor
Major
Suni
Major
Major
Major
Major
Major
Major
Major
Shiites
Minor
Minor
Minor
Minor
Minor
Minor
Minor
Turk
None
Minor
None
Major
Major
Minor
Major
Kurd
None
None
None
Minor
Minor
Minor
Minor
Persian
None
Minor
None
Minor
Minor
None
Minor
Christ.
Major
Minor
Minor
Minor
Minor
Minor
Minor
Notes
"- Dynasties in italicized are dynasties that were ruled by the
Major from the "blue" group and Major from the "yellow" group
A.   Four Unitary Empires
1.   Indian - Mongols
2.   Spain - Ummayys
3.   Turkey - Ottomans
4.   Iran (Shiites) - Sarnds
III.   Oslo Treaty
A.   Peace in the Middle East is synonymous with the US and the west
B.   September 13, 1993
C.   Areas
1.   Area "A" - 7 cities
2.   Area "B" - Villages
3.   Area "C" - 70% of the area of West Bank
4.   Area A & B had 90% of Arab Palestinians
D.   Most Palestinians were under Palestinian control but they PLO didn't do anything for them
IV.   Al Fattah
A.   Lit. meaning = uprising
B.   Started in 2000
C.   Led by Arafat
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