Introduction to the Modern Middle East
Jerusalem University College
Mr. Oded Yinon
September 8, 2003
"Islam and the Middle East"

I.   Islam = "slave of God"
A.   Islam never separated church & state
1.   Muhammad was both a political & religious leader
2.   So was Saddam Hussein
B.   Muhammad is the last religion so they know it all
1.   Everything is accepted until 622 AD
2.   There is relatively little change since 622 AD
C.   Islam was born into success by 732 AD (110 years after start)
1.   Success was a huge part of their heritage
2.   Islam can't believe now that they are loosing because success is vital to their being
3.   Islam is angry at Iraq because they gave up too easy
D.   Muhammad - "he's no Jesus Christ"
1.   He was a mass murderer
2.   The only Muslim leader - no other prophets, apostles, etcÉ
II.   Sunnites vs. Shiites
A.   Muslims from the beginning had communication issues therefore preventing it to have a strong unity
1.   Caliphs after Muhammad
a.   Abu Baker (killed)
b.   Othman (killed)
c.   Omar (killed) - side note: great military conqueror
d.   Ali (killed) - 680 AD
2.   All of them were killed by there own people, NOT our of martyrdom
B.   The split came in 680 but the split had more to do with politics than it did with religion
C.   Population
1.   Division
a.   Sunnites = 1.2 billion
b.   Shiites = 100 million (Iran, Iraq)
2.   Similarities
a.   Muhammad
b.   Koran
c.   They really share nothing else
3.   There is little leadership in either party - no Pope, etc.. and all they do is fight each other
D.   Approach to Terror
1.   Shiites usually (not always) responsible for terrorism
2.   Sunnites are usually very pacifistic
III.   Five basic obligation in being a Muslim
A.   Shada - oath - very similar to "giving your life to Christ" only in acknowledging Allah is God and Muhammad is his prophet
B.   Ramadan - Fast for 30 days during the day (not at night)
C.   Zakat - suppose to give to the "mosque" yet few do
D.   Haji - pilgrimage to Mecca
1.   Direction of prayer used to be towards Jerusalem
2.   They changed it because Jerusalem did not accept Islam
3.   95% of Muslims never go to Mecca
E.   Sila - Prayer 5x daily
F.   Jihad - (unofficial) holy war against the infidels
1.   Sha'id - those who die for Jihad
2.   Accepted by both Sunni & Shiites
IV.   Omar - the only country that does not endorse the Sunnites or the Shiites
A.   American/Israeli ally
B.   They hate Shiites & Sunnites so they ally themselves w/those again them
V.   The Koran
A.   Not like the OT or NT
B.   Basically a biography of Muhammad and his experiences
C.   Written 300 years after Muhammad died (9th century)
D.   Written by the Sunnites, but accepted by the Shiites because they did not have a book of their own
VI.   Other "holy books" - all written after the Koran
A.   Suna - book of traditions
B.   Shar'ia - book of Islamic Law
VII.   There is no development in Islam since the 10th century
A.   7th-10th century growth & development
B.   After the 10th century, they decided in fear of new splits, they closed the doors on any innovation
C.   This is sometimes called Ijtihad = "The closing of the gates"
D.   Islam is very fearful today because of the split that is coming from the "real believers" and those who want to innovate to today's culture (traditionalists vs. modernists)