Azusa Pacific University
Dr. Kathryn Smith
September 10, 2001
"Introduction to Luke's World"

I.   Bridging the Social Gap
A.   Social institutions
1.   Patronage/clientage
a.   Patron has a higher class rating
b.   Clientage receives "recommendation for higher positions", protection, and financial stability
c.   Patron receives dirty work, or information collection from "client class."
2.   Household slavery
a.   Lost sides of war
b.   Method of paying for bills
3.   Kinship
a.   Marriages/families
b.   Could be extended meaning an entire village
c.   Family was also considered extended family
d.   Maintain honor in the family line
e.   Endogamy: marrying inside the family - was VERY common
f.   Exogamy: marrying outside of the family - common today
g.   Determined social status - can not move up out of social class easily
4.   Establishes placement in society
B.   Religion & politics embedded in each other
1.   Completely inseparable
2.   Jesus' message had a deep political message
3.   Items like the "temple tax" indicates both political and religious arenas
C.   Values
1.   Biggest value is maintaining honor for self, spouse, family, and village
2.   Maintained by reputation, sexuality, social status
D.   Group Orientation
1.   Group needs are more important than the individual
2.   Ancient Palestine would have a "strong group" as apposed to our "weak group"
E.   Portrait of Ancient Palestine
1.   Advanced agrarian society (farming for the village society)
2.   Strong group
3.   Honor/shame value
4.   Patriarchal (head of the family - there was an order)
5.   Patronage system (see above)
6.   Gender roles CLEARY defined
7.   Government: Imperial Roman Province
8.   Resources - they move up
9.   Structural Dysfunction
a.   Too many poor
b.   Too few rich
10.   Social Classes
a.   Two classes
b.   Urban elites
c.   Peasants
11.   Religion
a.   Centrally run (for the most part not freely run)
b.   State regulated
12.   Literacy - very low, but not absurdly low
II.   Luke and His Gospel
A.   Date: Probably 70 A.D.
B.   Addressed to: Theophilus
1.   Means "lover of God"
2.   Could be written to a group of people
3.   Directed to the Romans and a "new Christian"
C.   Purpose
1.   To encourage or edify (Luke 1:4 so that you may know the certainty of the things you have been taught.)
2.   To root his tradition in Jesus/Jewish traditions
3.   To explain how Israel's salvation extends to the nations
4.   To validate his movement before Rome
D.   Genre
1.   Theological Story
a.   Meant to persuade about theology
b.   Purpose was to share thoughts about God and His use of Jesus
c.   Done through narratives/stories
2.   Not historical or biographical
a.   Not concerned about being historically accurate
b.   Not completely concerned about telling about Jesus as much as telling about what Jesus theologically had to say
3.   Sub-genres
a.   Narrative - Story (ex. One day Jesus went down to the seaÉ)
b.   Hymns - Songs (ex. Mary's Song, Zechariah's Song)
c.   Genealogies - Birth record (ex. A gave birth to B, B gave birth to C)
d.   Legends - Miraculous information that shapes nature and how it is viewed (ex. Jesus walking on water, calming the storm)
e.   Parables - Not necessarily true stories - (ex. Kingdom of heaven is like)
E.   Problem: Gospel is anonymous
F.   Probable Author: Luke the Physician
1.   Not an eyewitness (1:2)
2.   God-fearer
a.   Gentile
b.   Fully involved with synagogue life but not officially converted
c.   A lot more men than woman since they had to go through circumcision
d.   Probably was raised in the synagogue because he speaks/writes like he does
3.   Same author as Acts
a.   No debate on
b.   cf. Luke 1:1 & Acts 1:1
4.   Probably traveled with Paul
G.   Social World (see I. E. above)