Life & Teachings of Jesus
Azusa Pacific University
Dr. Kathryn Smith
February 26, 2002
"The Proclamation of God's Reign"

I.   Jesus and John
A.   Relationship between Jesus and John
1.   Matt 3:1-2; cf 4:17
Matt 3:1-6
Mark 1:1-6
Luke 3:1-6
Matt. 3:1 Now in those days John the Baptist came, preaching in the wilderness of Judea, saying, 2 "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand." 3 For this is the one referred to by Isaiah the prophet, saying, "The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make ready the way of the Lord, Make His paths straight!'" 4 Now John himself had a garment of camel's hair, and a leather belt about his waist; and his food was locusts and wild honey. 5 Then Jerusalem was going out to him, and all Judea, and all the district around the Jordan; 6 and they were being baptized by him in the Jordan River, as they confessed their sins.
Mark 1:1 The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God.
Mark 1:2 As it is written in Isaiah the prophet, "Behold, I send My messenger before Your face, Who will prepare Your way; 3 The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make ready the way of the Lord, Make His paths straight.'" 4 John the Baptist appeared in the wilderness preaching a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins. 5 And all the country of Judea was going out to him, and all the people of Jerusalem; and they were being baptized by him in the Jordan River, confessing their sins. 6 And John was clothed with camel's hair and wore a leather belt around his waist, and his diet was locusts and wild honey.
Luke 3:1 Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, when Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea, and Herod was tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip was tetrarch of the region of Ituraea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias was tetrarch of Abilene, 2 in the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas, the word of God came to John, the son of Zacharias, in the wilderness. 3 And he came into all the district around the Jordan, preaching a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins; 4 as it is written in the book of the words of Isaiah the prophet, "The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make ready the way of the Lord, Make His paths straight. 5 Every ravine shall be filled up, And every mountain and hill shall be brought low; And the crooked shall become straight, And the rough roads smooth; 6 And all flesh shall see the salvation of God."
B.   ho erkhomenos - the "Coming One"
1.   Matt 11:3; c.f. 3:11
2.   Early Christology
a.   It is found in Q
b.   It shows that during Christ's life people were concerned with who he was
II.   Jesus as Proclaimer
A.   Isaiah 61:1 - Melchizedek (11Qmelchizedek) as elohim
1.   Interpretations of Melchizedek
a.   mel = King; zedek = Righteousness - King of Righteousness
b.   King of Salem - King of Jerusalem
2.   Concept of Monotheism but the Trinity
a.   Some people believed that the early church got the idea of Jesus being God but still only worshiped one God came from a strong Greek influence
b.   Dead sea scrolls indicate that early Judaism (100 BC) correlated Melchizedek and another "aspect of God (elohim)" - Establishes mindset within Judaism of monotheism but more than one aspect
Col. II 1 & your God & 2 & And as for what he said: [Lev 256:13]: In this year of jubilee, you shall return, each one, to his respective property, as is written: [Deut. 15:2] This is 3 the manner (of effecting) the [release: every creditor shall release what he lent to his neighbor. He shall not coerce his neighbor or his brother when] the release for God [has been proclaimed]. 4 [Its inter]pretation for the last days refers to the captives, about whom he said: [Isa 61:1]: To proclaim liberty to the captives. And he will make 5 their rebels prisoners & and of the inheritance of Melchizedek, for & and they are the inheri[tance of Melchizedek, who 6 will make them return. He will proclaim liberty for them, to free them from [the debt] of all their iniquities. And this will [happen] 7 in the first week of the jubilee which follows the ni[ne] jubilees. And the day [of atonem]ent is the end of the tenth jubilee 8 in which atonement will be made for all the sons of [God] and for the men of the lot of Melchizedek. [And on the heights] he will decal[re in their] favor according to their lots; for 9 it is the time of the "year of grace" for Melchizedek, to exa[lt in the tri]al the holy ones of God through the rule of judgment, as is written 10 about him in the songs of David, who said [Psa 82:1]: "Elohim [God] will stand up in the assem[bly of God,] in the midst of the gods he judges." And about him he said [Psa 7:8-9]: "Above it 11 return to the heights, God will judge the peoples." As for that he sa[id {Psa 82:2}: "How long will yo]u judge unjustly and show partiality to the wicked?"
13 But Melchizedek will carry out the vengeance of God's judges [on this day, and they shall be freed from the hands] of Belial and from the hands of all the sp[irits of his lot.] É 14 É [He] is the one [who will prevail on this day over] all the sons of God, and he will pre[side over] this assembly.]
15 This is the day of [peace about which God] spoke [of old through he words of Isa]iah the prophet, who said [Isa 52:7]: "How beautiful 16 upon the mountains are the feet of the messenger who announces peace, of the mess[enger of good who announces salvation,] saying to Zion: your God [reigns."] 17 Its interpretation: The mountains are the pro[phets & ] 18 And the messenger is [the ano]inted {Heb: mashach} of the spirit about whom Dan[iel] spoke [ É and the messenger of ] 19 good who announces salv[ation is the one about whom it is written that [he will send him {Isa 61:2-3}: "to comfo[rt the afflicted, to watch over the afflicted ones of Zion."] &
3.   Qumran community relates Melchizedek
a.   elohim - God
b.   Is the coming one
c.   Isa 61:1 messenger
d.   Freedom from the devil
4.   Qumran community vs. Jesus Community
a.   The Jesus Community came into the picture with expectations in place
b.   Qumran shared these expectations with the larger Jewish world
c.   Establishes that from the very beginning of Jesus' life the early community thought of Jesus as divine; not just man
B.   Two functions of the proclaimer
1.   Prophetic challenge - to encourage those who are in prison or bondage
2.   Announcement of the end time
III.   Jesus as Prophet/Proclaimer
A.   "Prophet of the justice of the reign of God" (Herzog, 47)
1.   Matt 21:11
2.   John 6:14
3.   "the coming one" as prophet
4.   Identifies with the margins; addresses the elites
B.   Jesus Eschatological Focus
1.   Like John the Baptist
2.   Focused on social/religious/political order
3.   Social institutions to mirror covenant & Torah - that "take back" the Torah
a.   Jesus wanted institutions to bring hope and compassion (note: he did not want to rid the world of institutions)
b.   The Torah was used as an instrument of oppression
c.   Jesus wanted Torah wanted it to be an instrument of deliverance
4.   Religion central, but also deeply political, deeply social, deeply economic, deeply Israel-centered