Life & Teachings of Jesus
Azusa Pacific University
Dr. Kathryn Smith
January 24, 2002
"Jesus' World"

I.   Importance of Archaeology and History
A.   Explain religious life
B.   Explain social life of Galilee
1.   Accusation that Jesus' passion for Gentiles was because He grew up with them
a.   Found that villages were all Jewish
b.   The cities were full of Gentiles
c.   Gospels never mention the cities in Galilee
2.   They found harbors that proved the extreme activity in the area of Galilee - it was not just a sleepy little place
3.   Understood the setting of Caesarea Philippi was a very "religious" area which made the Apostles statements
C.   Help to date the texts
D.   Important elements
1.   Agriculture
2.   Trade and transport
3.   Roman political power
4.   Interaction with pagan world
II.   The Middle East in the Days of Jesus
A.    JesusWorldGeography of Roman Palestine
1.   Important administrative districts
a.   Samaria
b.   Judea
c.   Idumea
d.   Decopolis
e.   Perea
f.   Philip's Tetrarchy
g.   Galilee
III.   History of Judea
A.   559 BCE Cyrus of Persia
1.   Isaiah calls this guy a "messiah" - meaning anointed one
2.   Isaiah 44-45
B.   336 BCE Alexander the Great
1.   Greek Macedonian General
2.   Conquered and amazing amount of area
3.   323 BCE - Alexander dies
a.   Too large for one person to run by themselves
b.   Alexander was too young to have kids so he divided up his kingdom into four and his generals took control of
4.   198 BCE - Seleucid Empire takes Judea
C.   166 BCE Hasmoneans (Maccabees) being reign in Judea
1.   The Maccabees were just a small little priestly family
2.   Rallied up support for their cause; with a little blood shed and determination they took the kingdom
3.   Jews get the opportunity to rule themselves
D.   63 BCE Roman General Pompey
1.   Hasmoneans asked Rom to help with the dispute between Hasmonean brothers
2.   Rome of course takes this opportunity to "help out" and takes over the area
3.   Pompey claims the privilege of appointing the High Priest
a.   He still picked out of the traditional line of Aaron, but not out of the traditional family used
b.   This high priest will care for the interest of Rome more than the interest of his own people
c.   Very easily influenced and corruptible
E.   37 BCE Herod the Great
1.   Rome appoints him
2.   Client king - although a Jewish king, was directly responsible to Rome
3.   Very brutal - killed many of his own family members
4.   Master Architect
a.   Built the temple
b.   Many of his buildings are still around
c.   This is where he gets the title "Great" - not that people liked him but that he was awesome at building stuff
5.   4 BCE Herod dies - His ruling is divided amongst his three sons
F.    JesusWorld2Herod's heirs
1.   Archelaus (4 BC - 6 AD)
a.   Idumea
b.   Judea
c.   Samaria
2.   Herod Antipas (4 BC - 39 AD)
a.   Galilee
b.   Perea
3.   Philip (4 BC - 34 CE)
a.   Northeaster territories
IV.   The Jewish Wars (39 - 70 AD)
A.   Heavy taxation - many peasants lost their land because they couldn't pay their taxes
B.   Social Stratification
1.   The rich got richer and the poor got poor
2.   The desperation of the poor increased (as well as their numbers)
C.   Temple construction completed - this threw a huge amount of people out of work
D.   High unemployment
E.   66 AD - War breaks out after powder-keg explodes
1.   Jews put up a very good fight
2.   Josephus tells of bodies pilled up to the height of the city walls
3.   In the end they all locked themselves in the temple and fought from there
4.   70 AD - Temple destroyed by Titus, son of Roman Emperor Vespasian
F.   The end of temple-based Judaism (Biblical Judaism)
1.   Early Christians interpreted this as a punishment to the Jews for killing Christ
2.   This was fine when Christians were the little guys but after Constantine used this to persecute Jews - and we continue to do so today - it is a horrible sin