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Introduction to Literature
Azusa Pacific University
Ms. Ruth Romero
January 19, 2005
"Lecture Notes on Distinctive in the Immigrant Experience"

I.   Basic terms and considerations in immigrant experience
A.   Diverse – Transfer of population since Declaration of Independence but especially since mid 19 c. has produced most ethnically diverse country in the world
B.   Ambivalent Attitude – Government policy sometimes welcome and sometimes restrict immigrants (Asians, So. Europeans). Some groups have accelerated since 1990s
C.   Assimilation
D.   Acculturation
E.   "Non indigenous" – people who arrived and stayed in the U.S. after Native Americans were already here
F.   Early Groups (first to arrive)
1.   English
2.   Scotts
3.   Dutch
4.   Spanish
5.   French
G.   Arrived Later – 19th century many other European groups and Asians
H.   Immigrant Act of 1965 – before this there was a certain number of immigrants allowed from a particular country
I.   Ethnic Group – If members of the group or members of other groups consider it to be a distinct cultural entity
J.   Basis of Distinctiveness
1.   Place of Birth
2.   Physical features (race)
3.   Language
4.   Religion
5.   Combination
II.   What is Ethnic Identity
A.   Ethnic identity is largely a cultural phenomenon
B.   People assign and are assigned ethnic identities
C.   Not fixed in place or time as a cultural phenomenon
D.   A group may stress its identity or downplay it at different points in time or from one situation to another
E.   An individual may be defined by others differently at different times and social situations
III.   Degrees of acculturation subgroups
A.   Hispanics – accept certain terms for identification
1.   Latinos
2.   Chicanos
3.   Mexican-Americans
B.   Divide into countries of origin as well
C.   Mexicans from southwest, Californios, recent arrivals
IV.   How to determine status of a group
A.   Name of group; alternative names
B.   Defining features
C.   Patters of cultural variations
D.   Immigration and settlement history including basic information about nations of origin
E.   Demographic facts, (i.e. population and composition, changes in population, distribution in U.S.)
F.   Language spoken upon arrival in the U.S.
V.   Cultural Characteristics
A.   Economic patters
B.   Housing
C.   Religion
D.   World View
E.   Marriage and family
F.   Kinship
G.   Interpersonal relationships
H.   Arts
I.   Health and illness
J.   Social organizations
K.   Political organizations
VI.   What to look for
A.   Variation within the group
B.   Overall patterns within the group
VII.   Assimilation
A.   Assimilation or cultural persistence
B.   Degree and types of problems relating to general/politics
1.   Political ties
2.   Pan-ethnic ties
C.   Bibliographic citations
D.   For our literature study purposes, look into what has been written by others about the group, what members write about their individual experience or group experience, articles, novels, life stories, critical essays, and so forth
VIII.   Purpose of our studies in this class
A.   Basic description and key information
B.   Profile of group to get key cultural features, key issues or problems
IX.   Viewpoint: How the Bible addresses the topic of migration and acculturation
X.   Student Presentations
A.   "Of Their Voyage & Safe Arrival at Cape Cod" by William Bradford
1.   The Basics
a.   Who: Pilgrims, English
b.   What: Migrated from England to Cape Cod
c.   When: 1620
d.   Where: England to Cape Cod
e.   Why: Running for religious freedom and new land settle
2.   Hardships
a.   Fatal sicknesses
b.   Fierce storms of the sea
c.   Unknown of environment at the destination
3.   Belief in God
a.   They put all their trust in God, and they feel this is why they prevailed in the end
b.   God had mercy on all the pilgrims because they believe in Him
4.   Literary Analysis
a.   Voice: Rolling cadence
b.   Analogy: relate themselves to the Israelites (uses biblical language)
c.   Imagery: letting go of the past (behind them was the ocean)
d.   Plot: Sense of Mission
B.   "The Hardship of the Greenhorn" by Michael Pupin
1.   The Basics
a.   Who: German Immigrant
b.   What: Migrated from Germany with no money
c.   When: 1874
d.   Where: Hamburg, Germany to New York, USA
e.   Why: Optimistic dream of moving to America and starting life
2.   Literary Analysis
a.   Descriptive Skills
b.   Common Experience with immigrants: optimism
C.   "A Ship Unloads Her Cargo" by Vilhelm Moberg
1.   The Basics
a.   Who: Swedish Immigrants
b.   What: The journey across the Atlantic to the promising America
c.   When: 1850
d.   Where: Ship between Sweden and America
e.   Why: "When semi-corpses saw the shores of America, they returned to life"
2.   Literary Analysis
a.   Tone: Trusting (as apposed to optimistic)
b.   Theme: Social ties due to lack of money
D.   "Poor Visitor" by Jamaica Kincaid
1.   The Basics
a.   Who: Carribean Girl named Jamaica
b.   What: The working "abroad" experience of a young girl
c.   When: Not Clear
d.   Where: England
2.   Literary Analysis
a.   Themes: Longing for the past
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