History of Modern Philosophy
Azusa Pacific University
Dr. John Culp
April 16, 2004
"Kar Marx"

I.   Marx Quotes
A.   "Philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways; the point however is to change" - Marx critique of Fauerbach
B.   "The foundation of irreligious criticism is man makes religion, religion does not make manÉthis state and this society produce religionÉreligion is the general theory of this worldÉit is the fantastic realization of the human essence since the human essence does not require any true realityÉit is the opium of the people."
II.   Three areas of study that Marx continues to have influence
A.   Sociology
B.   Theology (Liberation Theology) - you can't adequately do theology if it doesn't do anything for those at the bottom of society
C.   Literary Criticism - you can't know what the author is saying unless you know what class system they come from
III.   Dialectic from Hegel to Marx
A.   Understanding of the dialectic
1.   Hegel - spirit, mind, or consciousness
2.   Feurbach - individual and species
3.   Marx - Economic forces
B.   Basis of reality
1.   Hegel - Absolute Spirit
2.   Feurbach - matter and human existence
3.   Marx - historical conditions of production
C.   Metaphysical perspective
1.   Hegel - idealism
2.   Feuerbach - theoretical materialism
3.   Marx - empirical materialism
IV.   Alienation
A.   What is the cause of alienation
1.   Pg 1012 - The worker becomes poorer the more wealth he produces
2.   Once you make it, it is no longer distinct or separate of you
3.   This product is an objectification of labor
4.   Once you have produced something it becomes something different from you
5.   Basic starting point: the act of making something
B.   Types of Alienation
1.   Alienation from Nature - you produce things from nature, and once you take the resources from nature you are using up the natural resources provided
2.   Alienation from Oneself - they are no longer working for the sake of working, but rather they are working because they are forced to
3.   Alienation from the Species - we have to make the products that somebody wants, not the products we would necessarily want to write
4.   Alienation from Others - because you put effort into the work of the product you produce but then someone owns it they own your efforts and the creates conflict
C.   Marx's Solution to Alienation: Give according to their ability and receive according to your need