History of Modern Philosophy
Azusa Pacific University
Dr. John Culp
March 15, 2004

I.   Influences
A.   Romanticism
B.   German Idealism
1.   Mind is the source of all reality
2.   Kant is called a critical idealists
II.   Hegel & knowledge
A.   Knowledge isn't just organized sensations, but knowledge is the reality of what appears
B.   Knowledge is an awareness of reality
III.   You cannot reduce people down to their details, but rather you must look at the person on the whole
IV.   Being
A.   Being
1.   The unity of all that exists
2.   All of reality prior to any distinctions
3.   The whole thing with out cutting it into pieces
4.   Comes first
B.   Non-being
1.   The negation of being
2.   A rises out of being by contrast
3.   Comes from make distinctions in the being
C.   Becoming
1.   Includes both Being and non-Being and is more than either because it is conscious of both
2.   The realization or act of going from non-being to being
V.   Reality
A.   Reality is rational
B.   Reality is knowable
C.   Reality develops as the Absolute
VI.   Ethics and Politics
A.   The idea of freedom is the essence of history
B.   State or government is the act of bringing together what it means to be free
C.   History - essence of the spirit coming to actuality as freedom
D.   Self-direction is at the heart of freedom
1.   To do this, you have to be conscious of yourself
2.   It cannot simply be determined by consciousness of surrounding
E.   Freedom appears in history through the action of individuals
F.   History is connected to metaphysics through logic
1.   The general aim of history is to make real the spirit of freedom
2.   Begins in nature