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History of Modern Philosophy
Azusa Pacific University
Dr. John Culp
February 25, 2004
"Reed, Rousseau & Kant"

I.   Timeline of Philosophers
A.   Hobbes - 1588-1679
B.   Descartes - 1596-1650
C.   Spinoza - 1632-1677
D.   Lock - 1632-1704
E.   Leibniz - 1641-1716
F.   Berkeley - 1685-1753
G.   Reid - 1710-1796
H.   Hume - 1711-1776
I.   Rouseau - 1712-1778
J.   Kant - 1725-1804
K.   Bentham - 1748-1832
L.   Wollstoncraft - 1759-1797
II.   Reed
A.   Two ideas of Ideas
1.   The operation of our minds in perceiving, remembering or imaging objects
2.   The philosophers understanding, there is an object that exists in your mind that takes the place of the object outside of your mind
a.   What your mind is working with is not the object itself, but it is working with an object inside your mind
b.   "There is a more immediate object which really exists in the mind, this object is an idea or image of things remembered."
c.   Three elements
i.   Object outside of your mind
ii.   Object inside your mind
iii.   Your mind itself
B.   Appeal to common sense - it just makes sense that there are objects that we know
C.   There aren't any ideas as objects alone
1.   Ideas are operations of the mind, not objects
2.   Judgment precedes ideas
a.   As humans we are created to make reliable judgments
b.   Everybody thinks they know at least something about it when they first look at it
D.   Epistemology
1.   Reduces the importance of ideas and the understanding that ideas are based on sensations
2.   Ideas that are drawn from physical sensation aren't that important
3.   What is important is to have a disposition to believe that can be tested by our sensation
III.   Rousseau
A.   Social standards corrupt humanity
B.   Freedom - becoming your own person
C.   1st law: Self-preservation - authority isn't based on external qualities such as social standing, strength, rights, etcÉ
D.   Social Contract
1.   When there are threats in the state of nature that require cooperation is when social contracts arise
2.   This shouldn't require us to give up our freedom
3.   Everybody should give everything they have to the community, but at the same time receive all the benefits of what everyone gives
IV.   State of Nature
A.   Hobbes - conflict due to self
B.   Locke
C.   Rousseau
V.   Immanuel Kant
A.   Kant called the rationalists dogmatists - what was important to them was what they thought of the ideas they had, not the experience
B.   Kant solved the problem of knowing the world without necessarily limiting the world
C.   Three works in his effort to use reason to understand life
1.   Critique of Pure Reason
2.   Critique of Practical Reason
3.   Critique of the Factory of Judgment (asthetics)
D.   KANT'S EPISTOMOLOGY
1.   Types of statements that people make that express knowledge
a.   Analytic Judgments
i.   The predicate is contained in the subject
ii.   Example: The triangle has three angles (by definition the subject defines the predicate)
b.   Synthetic Judgments
i.   Adding additional information to the subject that doesn't necessarily require it to be the subject
ii.   Example: The angles of the triangles are 30", 60", 90"
c.   Apriority Judgment
i.   Judgments that are made before experience
ii.   Example: the triangle has three sides
iii.   Confirm judgment by observation but you do not have to have observation
iv.   Has to meet the standards of non-contradiction
v.   Example: a triangle cannot have four sides
d.   Aposterior Judgment
i.   Judgments that require experience
ii.   Example: (when looking at a right angle triangle) this is a right angle triangle
2.   Combining judgments
a.   Kant's example of analytical & apriority judgment: Gold is a yellow metal
b.   Kant's example of synthetic & aposterior judgment: She has a yellow sweatshirt on
c.   Where do you find synthetic & apriority judgments
i.   Mathematics - example: 7+5=12
ii.   Physics
iii.   Metaphysics - example: God exists
a.   Kant doesn't think we can make a synthetic and apriority judgments about metaphysics because we can't test it out
d.   Copernican Revolution
i.   The role of the mind and the object in knowing something is reversed
ii.   Empiricist - you know something because there is motion from an object that leads to your mind (knowledge comes from the object)
iii.   Kant - knowledge comes from your mind, not the object
a.   What your mind is doing is organizing the sensations you have received from the object
b.   You don't have knowledge from just sensations - they have to be organized
3.   Senesation and Knowledge
a.   Sensations don't give you knowledge
b.   Sensatios once organized give us knowledge
c.   Knowledge comes from what your mind does with data
d.   You have to have sensation and structures in your lives in order to organize knowledge
4.   Three different ways to organize sensations
a.   Perceptual knowledge
i.   Description: Forms of sensibility
a.   Space
b.   Time
ii.   Function: Unite sensations to make knowledge, constitutive
b.   Conceptual knowledge
i.   Description: Categories of understanding
a.   Quanitty
1.   Unity
2.   Plurality
3.   Totality
b.   Quality
1.   Reality
2.   Negation
3.   Limitation
c.   Relation
1.   Substance
2.   Cause
3.   Community
d.   Modality
1.   Possible
2.   Existing
3.   Necessary
ii.   Function: Unite sensations to make knowledge, constitutive
c.   Speculative knowledge
i.   Description: Ideas of reason
a.   Self
b.   Universe
c.   God
ii.   Function: organizes other types of knowledge into a greater unity, regulative
iii.   While you can have sensations of these things, you could not know these things with out have some sensation that indicates they exist
5.   Recognizing what we know and don't know
a.   Phenomenal realm - what we know
b.   Noumenal realm - the reality behind our experiences
i.   We can never have a sensation with the noumenal real
ii.   This explains how we can know things beyond our sensations
E.   KANT'S ETHICS
1.   Driving force: Kant wants to find what is right/wrong for everybody, everywhere, at all time
   2.   Supreme Moral Principle - states universally what is the right moral thing to do
a.   (Baird 889) Not lifted by experience, because experience can't be universal
b.   (Baird 896) It isn't skill nor prudence seeking happiness
c.   (Baird 898) This is the supreme moral principle is categorical comparative
d.   (Baird 902) Categorical comparative
3.   The only thing that is universally good is the good will
a.   The good will is the desire to do the right thing
b.   The desire to do the right thing needs direction
c.   The way we know the right thing to do is reason
d.   If we think hard enough about situations, we should be able to come to the supreme moral principle
4.   Categorical Principles
a.   Act only according to that maxim of your action would become a universal law of nature
b.   Treat humanity, whether yourself or another, as an end in itself and not only as a means
c.   Principle of every human will
5.   Kant is clearly not a post-modern: there is no room for relativism
6.   We have to assume & things
a.   Human freedom
b.   Immortality
i.   There is no point in doing the right thing if doing the right thing doesn't make anything different
ii.   Why? There are many people who do the right thing, yet very often don't see any reward
c.   Postulate God
i.   There has to be a source for the world and a source for the agreement of what is right
ii.   We can't just have made all this stuff upÉit is outside of ourselves
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