History of Modern Philosophy
Azusa Pacific University
Dr. John Culp
January 14, 2004
"Background to Modern Philosophy"

I.   The Praise of Folly
A.   Erasmus
B.   Main Point: philosophers are arrogant and wrong in thinking that they know everything
II.   Background to Philosophy
A.   Ancient Philosophy
1.   585BC - 400 AD
2.   Metaphysics drives the conversation (i.e. what is stuff made out of, etc &)
B.   Medieval Philosophy
1.   400 - 1400 AD
2.   Religion drives the conversation (i.e. usually topics refer to God)
C.   Modern Philosophy
1.   1400 - 1900 AD
2.   Epistemology drives the conversation (i.e. how do we know things, etc &)
D.   Contemporary Philosophy
1.   1900 - Present
2.   Language and meaning drives the conversation
III.   Transformation between Medieval and Modern Philosophy
A.   Two crucial points that signified the change between the two eras
1.   Human thought became the final authority over God
2.   Truth begins to be understood as coming from the individual it fits as apposed to coming from the church or other authority
B.   Differing elements between the two eras
1.   People began to question the governing authority of their leaders
2.   Secular/Public sources started to educate through school and universities which typically were done by the church previously
C.   4 Themes
1.   Human beings are individual and unique
2.   Reality can be known through reason and observation
3.   Human existence is important and valuable
4.   Other people are important (You need to pay attention to those different from you)
D.   Chronology of Transformation
1.   1463-1494 - Pico
2.   1466-1536 - Erasmus
3.   1469-1527 - Machiavelli
4.   1473-1543 - Copernicus
5.   1483-1546 - Luther
6.   1533-1592 - Montaigne
7.   1561-1626 - F. Bacon
8.   1564-1642 - Galileo
9.   1588-1679 - Hobbes
10.   1596-1650 - Descartes
11.   1623-1662 - Pascal
12.   1632-1667 - Spinora
13.   1632-1704 - Locke
E.   Crucial Point of the Main Philosophers of the time period
1.   Machiavelli - for leadership the ends justifies the means (theories of government)
2.   Luther - the authority line moving from the justification through the church to justification by faith
3.   Erasmus - Simple Christianity will carry out belies through actions
4.   Montaigne - We as humans can't know absolute truth but we must doubt everything
5.   Pico - Humans have free will ability and that is what makes them different
IV.   Inductive vs Deductive Approach
A.   Inductive - Start with the material and find the general principles
B.   Deductive - Start with general principles and see how they can be put into practice