History of Ancient Israel
Jerusalem University College
Mr. Brian Schultz
October 29, 2003
"After the Split: The North vs. the South"

I.   Source Issues
A.   It needs to be understood that 1 & 2 Kings is very bias towards the Southern kingdom
B.   Very little information of the northern kingdom on its own is not there
C.   Elisha & Elijah are potentially in there to try to "balance" it out
D.   Most references to the Northern kingdom deal with their relationship with the Southern kingdom (1Kings 15, 2Kings 16)
II.   Comparison between North and South
A.   It seems that the kings in the North (the new kingdom) take deliberate steps to separate themselves from the South (i.e. 1Kings 14:1
B.   Dynasty
1.   South
a.   One dynasty - House of David
b.   Kings had many different wives (they always inform the "mother" of the king)
2.   North
a.   Charismatic dynasty - the person has to prove themselves
b.   Kings had only one wife
C.   Prophets
1.   A lot of prophetic activity in the North (even the prophets in the south were in reference to the North)
2.   In the South there were very little amount of prophets until AFTER the Fall of the North
D.   Borders
1.   South is completely isolated from the international world
2.   North is right in the middle of the international world (international coastal highway goes right through their heartland)
E.   Theology
1.   South
a.   Unified theology (political & religious) wrapped around the House of David
b.   One place of worship
2.   North
a.   They did not tie religion and politics nearly as much
b.   One location of worship never developed in the North
F.   Kings Dwelling
1.   South - Jerusalem was the only place the king lived
2.   North - several places
a.   Shechem
b.   Tirzah
c.   Peniel
d.   Samaria
e.   Jezreel
III.   Part One (ca. 913-844 BC)
A.   It was a time of prosperity
B.   It was a time of good international relations
C.   Northern Kingdom: "The House of Omri" (ca. 876-844 BC)
1.   Omri
a.   He establishes a new capital - Samaria (1Ki 16:24)
i.   It was a neutral place Ephraim & Manasseh
ii.   There probably was already a village there, and he ended up building an extensive city
iii.   It took a siege of 3 years for it to fall - this city was huge
b.   His dynasty (sons) last for four generations
i.   Even though it isn't his sons that survive until the fall of the Northern kingdom, there is good reason to believe he was the king who established the "Northern Kingdom Dynasty" that lasted until the fall
ii.   Assyria refers to the "Northern Kingdom" as the "House of Omri"
iii.   Most likely he completely revamped the social, economic, and foreign policy of the area
c.   International relations were initiated with Phoenicia and along with that, foreign cult worship probably came as well
i.   Samaria was focused on Baal worship (1Ki 16:32)
ii.   Jezreel was focused on Yhwh worship - mainly because the el ended
d.   He probably expanded the kingdom very much (reference to the Mesha stone)
2.   Ahab
a.   Regardless of the length of the draught (because three years would have been unsurvivable) - it had to be pretty significant\
b.   Baal was thought to be the "storm" god - among others
c.   Elijah & the Prophets of Baal (1Kings 18)
d.   Qar Qar Battle (852 BC)
i.   To defend against Assyria - Phoenicia, Syria, Edom, Amon, Moab, Israel make an alliance
ii.   They stop Assyria up on the Euphrates river
iii.   It says that Ahab contributed 10,000 soldiers and 2,000 chariots
a.   According to non-biblical sources he had the largest army by far
b.   According to non-biblical sources he contributed MORE chariots than all the other groups COMBINED
c.   This indicates the great wealth the North had
3.   Ahaziah - mentioned on the Mesha stele (2Ki 1 & 3)
4.   Jehoram
a.   Mentioned on the Tel Dan inscription
b.   See Jehoram mentioned below (III.D.3)
D.   Southern Kingdom - "House of David - Asa" (ca. 913-843)
1.   Asa - Border wars between king Baasha and asked for Syria to come help out
2.   Jehosaphat
a.   Growth further south - into the Negev
b.   Some reference to an attempt of a sailing establishment in Elat (Elath), but it failed
c.   It was very much a time of prosperity (for north as well) probably because Syria and Assyria were probably calmed
3.   Jehoram
a.   Interesting that 2Ki 8:6-24, and 1Ki 22:51-2Ki 1:18 the north and the south have a king named Jehoram, for the exact same dates
b.   Some have gone on to say that it may have been a "re-unification" of Israel
c.   When Jehu went to kill the king of the south and the king of north it would be easy to understand given it was the same king
d.   1Chron 21:4
i.   The "southern king" Jehoram goes and kills the "princes of Israel" which would indicate that he is also the king/ruler of the northern kingdom
ii.   If there was a king in the north (besides "southern" Jehoram) he would have killed the King of the north, not the princes of the north
IV.   Part Two (ca. 844- ??? BC)
A.   Jehu: The Northern Kingdom
1.   Rise to power (2Kings 9)
2.   Baal worship purging from Israel and Judah (2Kings 10)
a.   Who is Jehonadab (Jeremiah 35:1-10)
i.   His family could have potentially been a family that refused to worship Baal
ii.   Nomads are not dependent on rain - which Baal was "supposedly" in control of
iii.   They potentially left the north and lived in the Negev - where they would have been completely dependant of Yhwh for their needs
b.   Interesting notes about this passage
i.   The Recobates went south - it seems to say if you want to "re-kindle" your relationship with Yhwh: go south (cf. Elisha)
ii.   The theme of being transient - could possibly tie into the theme of returning to tabernacle worship
3.   Though he is viewed as successful in reference to the religious reforms - politically he is a huge failure
a.   He killed Jezebel - which breaks the alliance with Phoenicia
b.   He was part of a battle at the time against Syria which breaks another tie in the alliance
B.   Joash: The Southern Kingdom
1.   Revolt against his mother (his father's wife) that tried to take the kingdom after his father (her husband) died
2.   2Ki 11 - gives a bunch of names involved in the administration of the southern kingdom
V.   8th Century
A.   Because Assyria was threatening Syria (Damascus)
1.   This allowed Israel & Judah to expand
2.   Some think that this time period is the largest Israel & Judah got
3.   There probably was good interaction between the countries as well
B.   Notice how the political situation is not the issue of the writer (Jeraboam II is mentioned very little)
C.   Uzziah: The South
1.   When he died, there is a mention of him not being buried with the kings (2Chron 26:23)
2.   He had leprosy
D.   Kuntilet Ajrud
1.   Sight fairly far south
2.   Pottery found from both the south and the north
3.   Inscription that says, "may you be blessed of Yhwh of Samaria and his Asherah"
4.   Amos 5:5 indicates that Beersheva was a cultic worship
5.   Might have been a station for Northerner Pilgrimages down to Mt. Horeb
6.   It appears that Asherah has tagged itself onto Yhwh - unlike Baal - which was eventually defeated
VI.   The End of the Northern Kingdom
A.   Of the six last kingdoms of the northern kingdom four of them were assassinated
B.   Chronology of the Last Northern Kings
1.   Zechariah was assassinated by Shallum
2.   Shallum was assassinated by Menahem
a.   Tiglath-pileaser III (se below) has an impressive influence during Menahem's reign
b.   Menahem becomes a vassal to Tiglath-Pileaser III
c.   2Kigns 15:19-21
d.   50,000 people had to pay 50 shekels per head = 2.5 million shekels
3.   Menahem dies naturally and yields his thrown to his son Pehkiah
4.   Pehkiah was assassinated by Pekah
a.   Tiglath-pileaser III is already deporting people from Israel
b.   734 BC - Attempted revolt
i.   Israel & Damascus try to get the king of Judah to join a coalition to attack Assyria
ii.   This fails and because Tiglath-pileaser III knows this he comes in
iii.   732 BC - Damascus falls
5.   Pekah was assassinated by Hoshea
C.   Tiglath-Pileaser III in Assyria
1.   For a while there he didn't have his act together and it was a time of success for the northern kingdom
2.   Eventually he got his act together and decided to go conquering
3.   Patterns in Conquering Areas
a.   Voluntary submission
b.   Conquer by force
c.   Deport the people and bring in foreign people groups
4.   Controls all from Mesopotamia to Egypt
5.   Hosea is the prophet at this time
D.   Syro-Ephramite War
1.   A war where Syria and Ephraim joined together (not fighting against - kind of like the French-Indian War)
2.   Time: 734 BC (according to Brian)
3.   Bible References
a.   2Kings 16:5-9
b.   2Chronicles 28:16-21
c.   Isaiah 7-8
4.   Rezin - King of Syria (not Assyria)
5.   The War
a.   Syrian and Ephraim (Northern kingdom) wages war on Judah after Judah refuses to join the allies of Syria and the Northern Kingdom
b.   Judah then requests help from Tiglath-Pileaser III to stop the Northern Kingdom and Syria
c.   Chronicles and Isaiah both say you should not have asked Assyria for help and because you did you put yourself in a worse situation
E.   Sargon II replaces him and continues to take land
1.   The one who finally takes the Northern Kingdom
2.   Deports, according to his records, 27,000 people
3.   Takes anywhere from 50-200 chariots
F.   Northern Kingdom after its fall
1.   Because of the extreme resistance, they northern kingdom ended up being deported and there Jewish identity gets lost
a.   No Jewish names
b.   No Jewish communities
c.   No Jewish intermarriages
d.   This is where essentially we lose track of 10 of the 12 tribes
2.   2Kings 17:24-28 - King of Assyria is somewhat "supportive" of Yhwh worship in the "Land of the Israelites"
a.   He took a good chunk - but not all - of the Israelites all over
b.   He took a good chunk of people from outside of Israel and brought them into Israel
c.   The foreign elements are given the choice to worship Yhwh or there home Gods
d.   They choose to only worship there "home" gods - so the king of Assyria sends some priests down to Israel to show them how to worship Yhwh
e.   Eventually the "new" people in the land choose to worship Yhwh only
f.   The interesting thing is that according to archaeology pagan worship stopped at this exact time and only Yhwh worship remains
VII.   The Remnant of the Southern Kingdom
A.   Assyria comes to Philistia in 734 BC and Ahaz comes under Assyrian domination
B.   Hezekiah succeeds Ahaz but does not like his vassal status
1.   It does appear that Hezekiah did benefit though from being a vassal through an increase in trade
2.   Hezekiah
a.   Reorganization of the kingdom
i.   Elements
a.   New storehouses
b.   Hezekiah's Tunnel water supply
c.   Fortifying the walls (Is 22:10)
ii.   Most likely the funding for these developments came from increase trade
iii.   Two reasons
a.   Rapid economic growth
b.   Planning a revolt against Assyria
iv.   Jerusalem expands during this time period because of exiles from the north - two new "communities"
a.   The second quarter
b.   The mortar (depressed area) quarter
v.   It is believed it was during this time that Yhwh worship could only take place (sacrifices made) in Jerusalem
vi.   Revival of Literature
vii.   Northern traditions brought together with the southern kingdom (i.e. Elijah and Elisha, etc &)
viii.   The Prophets II - The Return of the Prophets
a.   In the beginning the north had TONS of prophetic activity while the south had none
b.   Interestingly enough, the south started to increase rapidly in prophetic activity (mainly Jeremiah and Isaiah)
ix.   Lmlk [belonging to the king] seals found on jars that were used for storing or distributing goods
a.   This could imply economic abundance
b.   Or it could imply that they were storing up food for a coming revolt
b.   Hezekiah's Rebellion
i.   705 BC - Sargon II died in Anatolia area which means he did not have time to appoint a new leader and usually in this case there is internal strife in the country (Is 14:16-20 may refer to the fall of Sargon)
ii.   It appeared to be a logical time for Hezekiah to start building up a defense and making allies
a.   Sidon (Northern Coast)
b.   Ashkelon (Southern Coast)
c.   Ekron (Border of Shpellah) refused to be an ally, so Hezekiah defeated there king and put a new king that would be there ally
d.   Ashdod - does the same thing as in Ekron
e.   Egypt - Makes an alliance with Shebitku
f.   Babylon wants to be independent
1.   It appears Babylon may have enticed Judah to revolt (2Kings 20:12)
2.   If Hezekiah thought he had Babylon behind him, this would have been a HUGE plus
iii.   701 BC - Sennacherib comes down the Mediterranean coast
a.   Takes Sidon
b.   Takes Ashkelon
c.   Egypt is pushed back quite easily
d.   Ekron, Timnah, Lacish is all taken
e.   2Kings 18:19-25 - delegation goes to Jerusalem
f.   Takes 46 cities, but is not able to take Jerusalem
1.   Biblical story says an Angel of the Lord smoked them
2.   Non-biblical explanation is that the Assyrian army got the Nile Fever (plague)
g.   Sennacherib removes his troops AFTER Hezekiah pays the tribute and STILL remains a Vassal
iv.   After the attack, there is an Economic downturn big time in the area
v.   Jeremiah's perspective of this attack Sennacherib
a.   Jeremiah 7
b.   Do not trust the other prophets
c.   The other prophets were saying this &
1.   The reason 46 towns fell to Sennacherib is because Yhwh is not with them
2.   The reason why Jerusalem has remained is because God will not allow anyone to destroy the area in which his temple dwells
3.   It is easy to see why these other prophets were called "prophets of God" - it is a "faithful" message
d.   This is why Jeremiah was supportive of falling to Babylon but the other prophets were saying stand up to Babylon
3.   Manasseh replaces Hezekiah and rules for a long 40 years
a.   There appears to be a downturn religiously
i.   Introduces cultic worship in the temple
ii.   Specific mention to Baal worship
b.   Shedding the blood of innocent people - 2Kings 21:16
c.   The Bible blames Manasseh ultimately for the fall of the Southern Kingdom
d.   He did increase the trade and economic situation though - he made the country prosper
e.   Assyria shows weakness
i.   Egypt starts rebelling in 674 BC but is pushed back
a.   Assyria however is not able to go all the way into Egypt for the first time
b.   Although, they did return in a couple of years to get into Egypt
ii.   Many others are revolting as well - yet for the most part Israel is staying "faithful" to Assyria
iii.   Although Manasseh is taken to Assyria for questioning for potential allying themselves with the revolters but it appears to conclude that he will remain faithful (2Chronicles 33:11)
iv.   By the end of Manasseh's reign Assyria was definitely on the downturn
v.   The end of Assyrian Empire
a.   614 BC the city of Ashur falls
b.   612 BC the city of Ninevah falls
c.   Nahum 3:18-19 may refer to the second to last Assyrian king who burned his palace down with him inside of it
4.   Amon rules for 2 years
5.   Josiah (640-609 BC)
a.   He is right at the downfall of Assyria (which fell in 610 BC)
b.   This gave him a lot of freedom in rulership and economic activity
c.   Tons of religious reform
i.   Repairs the temple
ii.   They find "The Book of the Law"
a.   Although people dispute what exactly this is
b.   Some suggest that Josiah might have written the text himself and then "found" it while reconstructing the temple
d.   Death (2Kings 23)
i.   Pharoah Neco (King of Egypt) goes up and tries to defeat Babylon
ii.   Josiah decides he is going to stop them
iii.   He was either killed in the battle field, or injured in the battle field and taken to Jerusalem and dies (depending on Kings or Chronicles)
6.   Pharoah Neco replaces Jehoahaz with Jehoiakim
a.   Jehoahaz was probably like his father Josiah and was pro-Babylon and anti-Egyptian
b.   Jehoiakim was probably pro-Egyptian
c.   All of this happened very quickly and Jerusalem was temporarily conquered by Egypt
VIII.   The Fall of the Southern Kingdom
A.   604 BC Babylon falls under Judah for the first time
1.   Jehoiakim sees a hole in Babylon's defense and looks for a way to revolt against Babylon
2.   597 - Babylon captures Jerusalem
3.   Jehoiakim dies in battle and is replaced by naturally Jehoiachin (Pro-Egyptian)
4.   596 - Jehoiachin is deported to Babylon and is replaced by Zedekiah (Pro-Babylonians)
B.   589 BC - Egypt and the rest of the "old coalition" (see above) - revolt successfully against Babylon and make it up to Lebanon
C.   Zedekiah thinks he can probably succeed as well which draws Nebuchadnezzar down to Judah which eventually means the deportation of most of the Israelites out of Judah