History of Ancient Israel
Jerusalem University College
Mr. Brian Schultz
October 29, 2003
"The Divided Monarchy"

I.   Sources
A.   Kings
B.   Chronicles
1.   Composed much later (at least during the exile or after)
2.   Ignores a lot of the north and focuses on the south
3.   Some scholars say the goal of Chronicles is says when we return from the exile how are we suppose to live in the land
C.   Extra-biblical
1.   Assyrian Records
2.   Ekron inscription
II.   Dating
A.   First objective date (Reference:??): March 15th/16th, 597 BC
B.   Dating problems in the Bible (for example)
1.   1Kings 16:8-10 - Baasha supposedly died in the 26th year Asa
2.   2Chronicles 16:1 - Baasha is still alive 10 years later in the 36th year of Asa
III.   The "Big-Divide"
A.   1Kings 12
B.   Elements
1.   Jeroboam's role and placement during this issue
a.   Kings refers to Jeroboam living in Egypt
b.   Chronicles refers to Jeroboam returning from Egypt
c.   Kings (Septuagint) he came back from Egypt and then called all of Israel together in order to have a meeting with Rehoboam
2.   The people's cry to Rehoboam - we need less taxes
a.   There is a theory that Judah was not being taxed (as was common given the fact the king came from Judah), therefore it is likely that it was the 11 other tribes that were saying this
b.   Different advice
i.   Elders - make it easier
ii.   Young Advisors - if you don't lay down the law now they will walk all over you
c.   Two types of taxes
i.   Mas - tax imposed on foreigners (i.e. 30%)
ii.   Sabal - tax imposed on Israelites (i.e. 10%)
iii.    They would have asked for the Sabal to be lowered
iv.   The interesting thing is that Rehoboam sends Adoniram
a.   Head of the tax of the foreign element in Israel
b.   Forced labor = lit. mas
c.   In a sense saying you think it is hard now, it is going to be like you are a foreigner
3.   It is interesting to note that initially it is only Judah that follows the house of David and then eventually Benjamin shows up
a.   It is weird to see Benjamin to join in because they are typically from the North
b.   Also, Saul was from the house of Benjamin, and there was a huge schism between the house of David and house of Saul so this would have been a chance to get back at the house of David
c.   They probably were not given a choice given the military value of Benjamin
4.   Jeroboam and his capital choices
a.   Jeroboam chose Shechem as the capital of the North
i.   Shechem was both a political and a religious center in the past
ii.   Similar to David's method by making Jerusalem
iii.   Shechem is located right in the middle of the valley, which would have been very hard to defend
b.   Builds up Peniel
i.   On the other side of the Jordan
ii.   A good military choice
iii.   Very rarely mentioned
c.   Builds up Tirzah
i.   Shishak probably took Shechem (or at least disrupted it)
ii.   Tizrah would have been further north and therefore easier to defend
iii.   References to Tizrah being a "capital"
a.   1Kings 14:17
b.   1Kings 15:33
c.   1Kings 16:8
d.   Peniel and Tirzah probably remained as the two capitals of the north (one on each side of the Jordan)
5.   The institution of a new cult
a.   1Kings 12:27-33
b.   Rings Aaron and the Golden Calf narrative loudly
i.   Golden calf idols
ii.   The comment about "O Israel, who brought you up out of Egypt"
c.   The Golden Calf
i.   Many Ancient Middle Eastern Religions were prohibited to make graven images to represent - there were two ways around this
a.   Standing stone - totally unaltered stone laid up
b.   Platforms for God - essentially saying this object isn't God (or gods), yet this is where God dwells
c.   What is interesting is that Baal is always said to reside on the back of the Bull
ii.   The Golden Calf was [potentially] not a deviation of worship
a.   Ex 32:4-5
1.   There is only one golden calf, so why would they use the plural verb following Elohim (which makes Elohim "plural")
2.   In addition to that, notice how right after the "golden calves" reference it reference to a feast with Yhwh
3.   It seems that everything in this reference refers to a singular God, with the exception of the wrong verb choice
b.   1Kings 12:27 - Jeroboam the new priest/king
1.   Jeroboam's two sons (1Kings 14:1, 20)
a.   Abijah
b.   Nadab
c.   Aaron's son's were also named Abijah and Nadab
2.   It almost seems to indicate that Jeroboam was a the "new" Aaron for the North
c.   Nehemiah 9:18
iii.   Jeroboam's [potential] move back to authentic Yhwh worship
a.   Solomon [and sons]
1.   Built a temple against God's desire
2.   Represented God's dwelling place following the Moshite priests - with Cherubim on the Ark of the Covenant
b.   Jeroboam
1.   Returned to the Aaronic method of representing God's dwelling place - with calves
2.   The "fixed structure" in Dan had a altar on it that was probably exactly the size of the altar in the Tabernacle - he was returning to the Tabernacle
3.   Side note: there is archaeological evidence that during the same time as the Ark-motif of Yhwh worship, there is emphasis of Calf-motif worship of Yhwh in the north
iv.   The Feast of Jeroboam (1Kings 12:32)
a.   He chooses a date close to the Feast of Tabernacles
b.   1Kings 8:1-3 - It certainly competes with the narrative of Solomon's feast that proclaims God's choice of Jerusalem and God's support behind the Davidic House
c.   It seems as if Jeroboam is moving the center of worship up to the North, using "Northern worship styles" (i.e. calves instead of cherubim), and has a feast similar to the feast of the South in a sense saying we are just as much Yhwh's chosen place for worship as Jerusalem
v.   What about Jeroboam's sin?
a.   By the time the texts were written - it was clear that Jeroboam's actions here was a sin
b.   It is also clear that the texts feel it was wrong for the North to break off of the Davidic house
c.   What is clear is that Yhwh worship was never abandoned in the North and it was easy for them to come back to the South after the fall of the North is Assyria in 722 BC