History of Ancient Israel
Jerusalem University College
Mr. Brian Schultz
October 8, 2003
"The United Monarchy"

I.   The United Monarchy has taken on a lot of criticism to the historical accuracy
II.   The concept of kingship was very popular for a very long time in the middle east and Israel would have been exposed to this
A.   Egypt - Pharaohs were essentially a kingship
B.   Mesopotamia - Father/son rulership
III.   Anointing of King always comes from God - (1Sam 10:1)
IV.   Chronology
A.   Shishack's campaign 925-924 BC
B.   Solomon died in 929 BC
C.   Solomon reigned for 40 years - most likely illustrates a
D.   David reigned for 40 years - most likely illustrates - 1005 BC is believed
E.   Interesting thing about Saul - 1Samuel 13:1
Saul was [thirty] years old when he became king, and he reigned over Israel [forty-] two years.
Saul was
. . . years old when he began to reign; and he reigned . . . and two years over Israel.
Saul was forty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned thirty-two years over Israel.
Saul reigned one year; and when he had reigned two years over Israel,
Saul was forty years old when he began to reign; and when he had reigned two years over Israel,
A son of a year [is] Saul in his reigning, year, two years he hath reigned over Israel,
1.   1 & 2 Samuel are "corrupt" texts - meaning that when the Masorites went to copy the text they decided they were going to copy it no matter what it looked like
2.   Other communities felt like it was their responsibility to make it make sense
V.   Sources used in the United Monarchy
A.   Texts
1.   1 & 2 Samuel
2.   1& 2 Kings
B.   Most people feel these texts are historically accurate - yet if they are attempted to fit to a "T" there are some difficulties
C.   They are written much later than the actual event and do have a bias
1.   It refers to the exile
2.   There are texts are too strong of foreshadowing to not be written after the events took place (i.e. we already know that David is going to replace Saul)
3.   It does interpret God's action in the course of history
D.   Deuteronomic History
1.   Division of the texts regarding the United Monarchy
a.   1Sam 1-3 - Samuel's anointing
b.   1Sam 4-7 - Arc Narratives
c.   1Sam 8-14 - The Saul Stories - Rise to power and rule
d.   1Sam 15 - 2Sam 5 - The rise of David and the fall of King Saul
e.   2Sam 9-20 & 1Kings 1-2 - The court history of David - The succession narrative
f.   2Sam 21-24 - Appendix of the book of Samuel
i.   Songs
ii.   Administrative lists
iii.   Narratives that don't fit chronology
g.   1Kings 3-11 - King Solomon
2.   Biases and Problems
a.   Dialogue - most likely conversations would not have been recorded
b.   Lots of information of private life aspects that most people do not feel would be in a historical account
3.   Linguistic indications of the earliness of the text - 10th century Hebrew grammar
4.   Anal records [i.e. tax districts, records of war, etcÉ] percentage in the text - these would give a good indication of when the text was written
a.   Saul - 5%
b.   David - 8%
c.   Solomon - 45%
E.   The Chronicler
1.   Division
a.   1Chron 10-28 - Record of David
b.   2Chron 1-9 - Record of Solomon
2.   Written after the exile
a.   Used Samuel and Kings text as a source - there are key verbatim passages
b.   The must have had access to some other sources
3.   David never does anything wrong - pro-Davidic monarchy
F.   Extra-biblical support of the historical accuracy
1.   Shishak's siege reference fits to the Bible and the extra-biblical text
2.   Fragment of the a stele of Shishak's siege found at Megiddo
3.   Tel Dan inscription found in 1994 which mention the house of David and dates tot he 9th century
4.   Mesha stele/Moabite stone from 8th cent BC refers to the house of David and the land that was taken from the Moabites
VI.   Creation of the Monarchy
A.   Reason
1.   They needed a king to help in the defense of the Philistines (1Sam 9:16)
2.   The hill country was not good agriculture land and they needed to increase work load by increasing family size and eventually when families get to big they need to move out but their needs to be some sort of administration between the two new "cities"
a.   From Iron Age I to Iron Age II there seems to be a growth of sites by 90% and the total settlement is at 80%
b.   There was probably a drought at least some point and there would need to be a "national" scale distribution in order to make sure people get all the food they need
c.   If trade became huge between two cities there would have to be an unbias system of security
B.   Method
1.   Saul
a.   Rise to power (two versions)
i.   1Sam 9-10 - Chosen against his will while looking for his donkeys
ii.   1Sam 11 - what motivates the people to nominate Saul as king is his actions against Jabesh-Gilead
b.   Background
i.   Saul came from the tribe of Benjamin
ii.   Saul is part of a family that is zealous for the tribe of Benjamin and trying to capture the land for Benjaminites (this is seen at Nob and Gibeon)
iii.   Comes from the clan of Matri
a.   Matri not mentioned anywhere else in the Bible
b.   Close to the word Natri (also not mentioned in the Bible)
c.   Natri (lit. Natrar) means to guard and protect - this is just a theory, not actual evidence of the "mix-up"
2.   David
3.   Solomon
VII.   Reasons for the Monarchy
A.   National defense from the Philistines
B.   Provide a structure for times of drought (before the monarchy there are many stories of going to Egypt for food)
VIII.   Changes of the country because of the monarchy
A.   Saul establishment
1.   Sets up a minimal structure
a.   Administration (1Sam 21:7)
b.   Established a standing army (1Sam 13:2)
c.   Appointment of priests from within Levi (1Sam 14:3)
2.   Divided land into districts (1Sam 13:1-4) - scholars dispute this
a.   Divided on tribal lines (2Sam 2:8-9)
b.   Divided further within the tribes into smaller districts
c.   Reasons
i.   Taxes
ii.   Military
3.   Established taxes and tax collection
B.   David's Developing Administration Passages
2Sam 8:16-18
2Sam 20:23-26
1Chronicles 27:16
Army commander (volunteer)
Army commander (volunteer)
Leah (6 total division representatives)
1. Reuben
2. Judah
3. Simeon
4. Issachar
5. Levi
6. Zabulon
Army commander (armed guards)
2 Priests
Director of Forced Labor
(Arthur & Gath) - not in mentioned
Rachel (6 total division representatives)
1. Benjamin
Army Commander (armed guards)
David's Priest
2 Priests
2. Naphtali
3. Ephraim
4. 1/2 Manasseh
5. 1/2 Manasseh
6. Dan
David's Priests
1.   2Sam 8 & 2Sam 20 shows the development of David's administration
a.   Notice the Army Commander (armed guards) moved from the 2nd to last up to 2nd on the list
b.   Notice the additional role of Director of Forced Labor - probably foreigners left in the area that were doing the "king's work"
c.   Notice on 2Samuel 8:18 reference to "royal advisers"
i.   The only place in the Bible where kohim is translated advisers and not priest
ii.   Indicates the text change by the translators because his sons couldn't be priests because they aren't from Levi, where as Ira the Jairite could possible be from Levi
2.   1Chronicles 27 indicates that David was a good politician and respected family ties by dividing the administration by tribe and not by geographical boundaries
a.   Leah's "sons" had 6 representatives - keep in mind Zilpah's sons "belong" to Leah
b.   Rachel's "sons" had 6 representatives - keep in mind Bilbah's sons "belong" to Rachel
3.   The two priests of 2Samuel
a.   Location of priests
i.   Zadok
a.   South (Hebron)
b.   From the line of Aaron
ii.   Abiathar
a.   North (Shiloh)
b.   From the line of Moses (Mushites - Num. 26:58)
1.   Descendent of Eli (1Kings 2:27)
2.   House of Moses reference being priest (1Sam 2:27-28) - it's vague but other references support it
a.   Moses' brother is Aaron and therefore both are descendents of Levi
b.   Moses acts as a priest by going into the Holy of Hollies (Numbers 7:89)
c.   Moses makes it an act of habit to take non-priest into the Holy of Hollies (Num 11:16-30, Deut 31:14-15)
d.   Moses is referred to as a priest during the blessing of Deuteronomy (Deut 33:8, cf. Ex 17:2-7)
b.   Like the sons of Leah and Rachel, the choice of priests correlate to equality of the area as well - it was political as much as it was religious
4.   All the evidence thus far points to the fact that David was a VERY VERY VERY good politician
5.   David's problems, divisions, and crisis (2Samuel 18-20)
a.   Many of David's problems were the result of the fact that he did not have a professional, standing army
b.   David chose to handle things politically instead of military (but not necessarily a good thing)
c.   Had a very loyal army commander in Joab
i.   Killed Absalom
ii.   Amasa
iii.   Bicri
C.   Solomon's Deconstruction of the United Administration
2Sam 20:23-26
(David's Reign)
1Kings 4:1-6 (Solomon's Reign)
Army commander (volunteer)
1 Priest
Army commander (armed guards)
2 Secretaries
Director of Forced Labor
Army commander
2 priests (one the same as above?)
2 Priests
District officers
David's Priest
Solomon's priest & friend
Director of the Palace
Director of Forced Labor
1.   Notice the change from 2 priest (a northern and a southern) to 1 priest (only from the south
a.   The shift went from Moses' priestly family to Aaron's priestly family
i.   During Saul's time the there was 1 priestly family from Eli (Moses)
ii.   During David's time there were 2 priest both from Abiathar (Moses) and Zadok (Aaron)
iii.   During Solomon's time there was 1 priestly family from Zadok (Aaron)
b.   The list indicates this as well, because it shows that there were two priests at one point and then eventually one priest after Solomon rid of the "Moses priest"
2.   Notice the predominate shift from military (top of David's) to temple worship (top of Solomon's time)
3.   Solomon's "Twelve Districts"
David's "Tribes"
1Chron 27:16
Solomon's "Tribes"
1Kings 4:1-22
"Jezreel Valley" Cities
Ramoth Gilead
1/2 Manasseh
1/2 Manasseh
a.   Solomon stopped respecting the tribal divisions compared to David who respected the divisions for the sake of taking more taxes
b.   Notice the missing Judah (Solomon's tribe)
i.   Which indicates that he is not taxing them
ii.   This was common practice in the middle east, yet still probably angered the northern kingdom
c.   Some think that Solomon's "Twelve Districts" are not new districts but rather Canaanite areas that Solomon had to design an administrative structure for, but archaeology seems to disprove this