HomeAviationTravelPhotosMinistryResourcesBlogFunFilesXtraFilesResumeEmailTemp

History of Ancient Israel
Jerusalem University College
Mr. Brian Schultz
October 8, 2003
"The Judges"

I.   Background of the Book of Judges
A.   Defined by the period between the settlement and the monarchy
1.   Continuation of history form the book of Joshua
2.   Just like Joshua, the book of Judges has some major timeline issues
a.   According to the biblical text, they rule for 410 years
b.   The temple was built 480 years after Egypt
i.   40 years in the wilderness
ii.   80-90 years for rulership from Saul, David, and early-Solomon
iii.   The biblical text itself contradicts the time frame
B.   Cycle in Judges
1.   Apostasy towards God
2.   Oppression from enemy
3.   Weeping to God
4.   Judge sent by God to deliver
5.   Living in freedom because of the work of the Judge
6.   That generation fades away and the children following forget the Lord and we're at stage 1 again
C.   Judge
1.   lif. Shophet (shafat)
2.   Meaning
a.   One who decides between two parties
b.   Once they have judged between two things they are responsible to carry out the punishment/edict
c.   One who is suppose to defend the right of the powerless (Psalm 82:3)
d.   Governor (2Kings 15:5)
e.   Term used to define a high ranking official but definitely not the top guy (Mari texts)
3.   God is viewed at THE Judge (Judges 11:27)
4.   Purpose
a.   Some say, the reason for judgeship is because there was not suppose to be a king (Judges 8:22-23, 1Sam 8)
b.   Some say, the reason for the book of Judges is to show that the judgeship wasn't working and they needed a king (Judges 21:25)
5.   The characteristic of the judge is that he has charisma and he has outstanding personality the draws people together in order to put them in the right direction
II.   Judges
Name of Judge
Tribe of Judge
Enemy
Biblical Reference
Othniel
Judea
Aram (Syria?)
3:7-11
Ehud
Benjamin
Moab
3:12-30
Shamgar (Son of Anath)
? (probably not an Israelite)
Philistines
3:31
Deborah & Barak
Ephraim
Canaanites
4:1-5:31
Gideon
Manasseh
Midianites
6:1-8:32
Abmilech (Son of Gideon)
Manasseh
Shechem
9
Tola *
Issachar
?
10:1-2
Jair *
Gilead
?
10:3-5
Jephthah
Gilead
Ammonites/Moabites
10:6-12:7
Ibzan *
Asher/Zebulon
?
12:8-10
Elon *
Zebulon
?
12:11-12
Abdon *
Ephraim
?
12:13-15
Samson
Dan
Philistines
13:1-16:31
A.   Minor Judges (*)
1.   They are minor judges simply because they are discussed less in the book
2.   Judges
a.   Tola
b.   Jair
c.   Ibzan
d.   Elon
e.   Abdon
III.   Social structure in Israel during the times of the Judges
A.   Joshua 7
1.   Tribes (shevet)
2.   Family/clan (mishpahah)
3.   Household (bet av)
4.   Individual (ish)
B.   The highest function of unity is at the clan level - but rarely do the tribes work together in complete unity
IV.   The Appendix Stories of Judges
A.   These are the stories that don't fit the pattern of Judges but are still put there in order to illustrate the need for a King because the "land did as it pleased"
B.   Narratives
1.   The movement of the tribe of Dan
a.   Danites move from the west of Benjamin up to the far north of Israel near the city of Dan (Laish) - Judges 18:27
b.   There is archaeology found at Dan that is only found south of the Jezreel valley, typically in Judah
2.   The Levite and his concubine
a.   The obvious story
b.   The subtle behind the scences' story
i.   Gibeah had no hospitality and the men were like the men from Sodom - this is where Saul was from
ii.   Compare this to the book of Ruth where Bethlehem (Judah) had great hospitality - this is where David was from
V.   The Philistines
A.   First appear in13th century BC in the Eastern Mediterranean
B.   Part of a larger movement called the "Sea People"
C.   There seems to be some VAST migration at this time and no one seems to know why
1.   Egypt (super-power in the south) and Hittites (super-power in the north) are in decline
2.   Come out of a place called Casulhites (Gen 10:14, Amos 9:7, Jer 47:4, Deut 2:23)
D.   Major Philistine invasion happened during Rhamses III
E.   Five major cities
1.   Gaza
2.   Ashkelon
3.   Ashdod
4.   Ekron
5.   Gath
F.   Other cities
1.   Timnah
2.   Ziklag
3.   Javneh
G.   3 stages of Philistine people
1.   1180-1150 - they arrived and destroyed many cities around the coast
2.   1150-1050 - expansion of the Philistines
3.   1050-930 - loss of their distinctiveness, and their expansion is halted because of the later monarchy, and actually loss of control of their area
JerusalemUniversityCollege_SideAd2