History of Ancient Israel
Jerusalem University College
Mr. Brian Schultz
September 24, 2003
"Israel in Egypt & the Exodus"

I.   Egypt & the Hebrews
A.   18th Dynasty
1.   Ahmose (1552-1526)
2.   Amenhophis I (1527-1507)
3.   Thutmosis I (1507-1494) - Goes to all the way to the Euphrates
4.   Thutmosis II (1482-1479)
5.   Hatschepsut (1479-1458)
a.   Female
b.   Wife or Sister of Thutmosis II and took control after husband/brother died
6.   Thutmosis III (1479-1425) - note 21 yrs of co-regency
a.   Son of Thutmosis II, eventually took control from his father's wife/sister
b.   Went through Canaan in 10 days
c.   Battle of Megiddo - 1457
7.   Amenophis II (1427-1401) - not 2 yers of co-regency
8.   Tuthmosis IV (1401-1391)
9.   Amenophis III (1391-1353)
10.   Amenophis IV/Akhenetaen (1353-1337)
a.   Armana Leters (written began during Amenophis III, then moved to Armana by Amenophis IV)
i.   Apiru (Habiru)
a.   Possible connection to the "Hebrews" (Habiru) does not really fit linguistically
1.   Original language refers to the people group as " PR "
2.   Then PR assumed vowels get installed which then makes aPiRu
3.   The  sign gets turned into an H, which then makes HaPiRu
4.   It is easy to see how people could label the Hapiru as the "Hebrews" but it doesn't really fit
b.   This people group is a more generalized term (like modern day "terrorists") that don't necessarily describe nationality but rather groups actions
c.   Nomadic mercenaries that live on the fringes of society that make themselves available as "soldiers"
d.   Very transient people group
e.   They were present in Shecham
ii.   Biblical Parallels
a.   Joshua 12 - list of kings and sites are also listed in the Armana letters
b.   Judges 9 - reflect what's happening in Armana letters
c.   Armana letter #252 - Judges 17-18
11.   Smenkhkare (1338-1336) - note 1 yr co-regency
12.   Tutankhamun (1336-1327)
13.   Ay (1327-1323)
14.   Haremhab (1323-1295)
B.   19th Dynasty
1.   Ramesses I (1295-1294)
a.   Very old when he starts his reign, and only rules for a year
b.   Moves capital to Avaris
c.   Avaris = Biblical Zoan (Numbers 13:22) - Hebron would have been built during this time frame
2.   Sethos I (1294-1279)
a.   Wanted to regain firm control over Canaan and the Hittites
b.   Refortifies the stations that were built by Tuthmosis III - refered to as The Road of Horris
c.   Meets a group of people called the Shasu
i.   They are pastoralists
ii.   Associated with the Edomites because they seem to becoming from Trans-Jordan
iii.   They are a people group that is well known in Egypt, and some people have assumed the Hebrews were the Shasu
d.   Reference to a site called Yenoam
3.   Ramesses II (1279-1213)
a.   First important king of the Ramesses dynasty
b.   Traditional Pharaoh of the Exodus
c.   Exodus References - Ex. 1:11
i.   Builds a new city called P Ramesses
a.   Location: Tell Ed-Dabah; not: Tannis despites Josephus assertion
b.   Exodus cannot predate 1279 BC
ii.   Builds a second city called Pithom
d.   Battle of Qedesh in 1274 BC
i.   Qedesh is located further north than Damascus
ii.   Egypt would have been the "loser"
a.   They used to control area up to Qedesh
b.   When all is done, he has lost territory down to Damascus
iii.   However, Egypt does not describe it as a loss, but rather a win
e.   Signed the "Silver Treaty" with the Hittities
i.   Both recorded on silver plates
ii.   Only differences between the two copies is that each copy claims the other country requested the treaty
4.   Merenptah (1213-1203)
a.   Another potential Pharoah of the Exodus
b.   Collection of Papari called the Anastasis written during this time
i.   Letter 4 - Reports of Shashu coming to graze their flocks near Pithom
a.   Israel grazed there flocks in Goshen because there was drought in their land
b.   Pithom is a border of Goshen so names can be interchangeable
ii.   Letter 1 - Satircal scribe (older) writing to another scribe (younger)
a.   Younger scribe challenging a older scribe; letter 1 is the older scribes challenge to the younger scribe
b.   Makes reference to land of Canaan
c.   Merenptha Stele
i.   Dates at 1208 BC - Israel had to be in the land by 1208 (look at
ii.   Originally found at Karnade
iii.   ANET 378
iv.   Earliest known document mentioning Israel specifically calling it Israel
a.   Three cities mentioned have hieroglyphs that represents "cities"
1.   Ashkelon (off of Sea of Mediteranian)
2.   Gezer (in "tribe" of Benjamin)
3.   Yenoam (past the Jordan river just east of the sea of Galilee)
b.   Israel has a hieroglyphs that represents a "people group"
1.   Could potentially be the tribe of half tribe of Manasseh that Egypt went and concurred
2.   The Stele indicates that Israel was completely wiped out
3.   It points to the time period mind frame did not necessarily mean EVERYTHING was wiped, just severely "handicapped" and no longer in control
5.   Amenmesses (1203-1200)
6.   Sethos II (1200-1194)
7.   Siptah (1194-1188)
8.   Twewosret (1188-1186)
C.   20th Dynasty
1.   Setnakht (1186-1183)
2.   Ramesses III (1183-1152)
a.   Withstand and attacked the "Sea People" (aka the Philistines)
b.   City of Lachish mentions Ramesses III which indicates they were in the land at least until 1152
c.   Recent scholarship has made mention to the fact that it is Ramesses III is the Ramesses of the Exodus not Ramesses II
3.   Ramesses IV (1152-1146)
4.   Ramesses V (1146-1142)
5.   Ramesses VI (1142-1135)
6.   Ramesses VII (1135-1128)
7.   Ramesses VIII (1128-1126)
8.   Ramesses IX (1126-1108)
9.   Ramesses X (1109-1100)
10.   Ramesses XI (1100-1070)
D.   21st Dynasty
1.   Smendes, Hedkheperre (1070-1044)
2.   Amenemnisu, Neferkare (1044-1040)
3.   Psusennes I, Akheperre (1040-991)
4.   Amenemope, Usimare (993-984) - not co-regency of 2 years
5.   Osorkon the Elder, Akheperre (984-978)
6.   Siamun, Neterkheperre (978-959)
7.   Psusennes II, Tyetkheperure (959-945)
E.   22nd Dynasty
1.   Shosheq I, Hedjkheperre (945-924) = Shishak of 1Kings 14:25-26 and 2Chronicles 12:3-4 in 925 BC - this date is NOT disputed by anyone!
2.   Osorkon I, Sekhemkheperre (924-889)
3.   Takeloth I, Hedjkjeperre (889-874)
4.   Osorkon II, Usimare (874-850)
5.   Takeloth II, Hedjkheperre (850-825)
6.   Shoshenq III, Usimare (825-786)
7.   Shoshenq IV, Hedjkheperre (786-773)
8.   Pimary, Usimare Settepenamun/re (773-767)
9.   Shoshenq V, Akheperre (767-730)
10.   Osokron IV, Akheperre (730-715) = So of 2Kings 17:4 in 725 BC
F.   -NOTEÑObviously note that the following Dynasties are incomplete and some of which appear correspondingly to previous Dynasties
G.   23rd Dynasty
1.   Iuput II - last ruller
H.   24th Dynasty
1.   Pi(ankh)y (728)
2.   Tefnakht
3.   Bakenranef (? - 715)
I.   25th Dynasty
1.   Shilkanni (? - 715)
2.   Shabako (715-701)
3.   Shebitku (701-690) - Went to help Hezekiah against Sennacherib in 701 BC
4.   Taharqa (690-664)
J.   26th Dynasty
1.   Psammethichus I (664 - ?)
II.   The Exodus
A.   Biblical Account
1.   Children of Israel go down to the Egypt
2.   Stay there 430 years (Ex. 12:40)
3.   Wonder through the desert for 40 years
B.   Several issues that complicate the biblical account
1.   Large numbers
a.   Bible makes references to 6 "countries" larger than Israel, which would make a population for the area of 14 million (today it is 8 million)
b.   It would be hard to move 2 million people through the wilderness and not leave a trace
2.   Moses' birth
a.   Striking similarities ANET 119 - the legend of Arki
b.   Is it a coincidence or Exodus writer using a common story
3.   No reference in Egypt of the Hebrews having any tie to the area
a.   Strange if they are a large group of people
b.   Not-so strange if they are a smaller group
c.   Not-so strange if they were labeled under another group (i.e. Shasu - see above I.B.2.c.)
4.   Location of Sinai
a.   Present day to the 3rd cent AD - we do not have a known location prior to that
b.   Habakkuk 3:2-7
i.   God comes from Teman - the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula
ii.   Mount Paran - in the biblical Negev
c.   Judges 4:4-5
i.   Seir is located in Edom
ii.   Mt. Sinai located in Seir
iii.   Edom is located in Arabia Peninsula
iv.   Therefore, Judges indicates Sinai is in the Arabia Peninsula not Sinai Peninsula
5.   The route of the Israelites in the desert does not make sense at all - follow their route
6.   The chronological
a.   Judges 11:26 - 300 years Israel occupied Arnon (Reuben's tribe)
b.   1Kings 6:1
i.   Side note - Month of "Ziv" is original Hebrew month name
a.   After captivity, Hebrew adopted the Babylonian month names
b.   So this points to the fact that if Exodus was written after captivity, then it was using sources before the captivity - most likely written pre-captivity
c.   Also indicates that 6:1 is trying to SPECIFIC on a date - therefore they wanted a year to put in there, not just a generational term (see below)
c.   Date of Exodus
i.   Bible dates Exodus at 1446
a.   1Kings 14:25-26 event with King Shishak happened in 925 BC
b.   It was five years after Solomon death - Solomon died in 930 BC
c.   Solomon reigned for 40 years - Reign began in 970 BC
d.   Solomon started building the temple 4 years into his reign - 966 BC
e.   966 was 480 years exactly after the Exodus (1Kings 6:1) - which makes the Exodus year 1446 BC
ii.   Pi Ramses has to be constructed before Israelites could leave Egypt - which happened 1279 (see above I.B.3.a.i.)
iii.   Exodus had to be done by 1208 BC - according to the Merneptah Stella (see above I.B.3.c.)
iv.   Possible 480 year resolution
a.   480 is exactly 12 x 40
b.   40 years is a standard of generation
c.   Generation timeframe may more accurately be 25 years
d.   12 X 25 = 300 years
1.   966 (construction date for temple) + 300 years = 1266 BC
2.   Fits within Pi Ramses construction date and the Merneptah Stella
e.   Solomon's reign may not be 40 years exactly either
C.   Egyptian analogies that parallel the Exodus
1.   Papyrus Leiden 348
a.   Official degree from Ramses II to bring food to the soldiers and the Apiru who are working at Pi Ramses and Pithom
b.   There are two groups of people working on the construction of the city
2.   The way of the Philistines (Ex. 13:17)
a.   Sethos I mentions it the way of Horus
b.   Seems to be this was a fortified road, probably a reconstruction of Tuthmosis III
c.   Stayed fortified for the entire 13th cent. BC
d.   Makes sense why God did not tell them to take this route
3.   Ex 14:3
a.   Suggests the Israelites are trapped
b.   They have to go North where there are probably some Egyptian soldiers stationed there
4.   Anastasis Papyri (ANET 258-259)
a.   Anastasis X & XI indicate the Egyptian had a very tight control who came and left the modern "Suez Canal" - this might reflect the statement of "let my people to go," because even the Egyptians had to request to leave this border
b.   Anastasis XI has record of the tribe Shashu (see I.B.4.b.) crossing the border
c.   Anastasis X mentions two slaves that escape and manage to cross the border at night
i.   Go to places that are similar to places mentioned in the Bible
ii.   They had to take the same tactics and same route
5.   Elaphantine Stele
a.   Dates: 1186-1883 BC
b.   Discuss two ruling factions in Egypt and they are trying to get the support of a foreign "Asiatic group" that was given silver and gold to side with a particular ruling faction
c.   This particular Stele is not talking about the Israelites, but shows a precedent for giving silver and gold (Ex. 3:21-22, Ex. 1:10)
6.   Papyrus Harrus I
a.   Between Ramses I and Ramses II and there was a lot of upheaval
b.   Asiatic ruler named Irsu led a group of people revolting against Egyptian rule in the far South
i.   A Semitic person from Syria or Cannan
ii.   He is Asiatic
c.   Eugerate Letter (not within Papyrus Harrus I) from man named Beya who seems to control parts of Egypt at the beginning of the 12th cent BC
i.   Beya is an Asiatic name, not an Egyptian
ii.   He says in this letter that the Asiatics have taken control
iii.   Some scholars have suggested that is Irsu is Beya and this Beya is Moses
7.   Dry dykes very far south remembered as Joseph's Granary
a.   This indicates there is a strong possibility of Asiatics being in the far south
b.   Note: these are not actually Joseph's granaries nor are we sure when the tradition started, but there is a tradition of Joseph being in the far south (nowhere near Goshen/Pi Ramses or Pithos